Avocado: the ‘green gold’ causing environment havoc

avocado

(Credit: Unsplash)

This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum.

Author: Manuel Ochoa Ayala, Academic Researcher, Economic and Business Research Institute


• The avocado boom means 11 billion pounds are consumed annually worldwide.

• Intensive production in Michoacán state, Mexico has caused environment damage on multiple fronts.

• The avocado supply chain desperately needs international monitoring and standards.

Maybe you start your day with an avocado toast, then you have an avocado salad for lunch, and you finish your day with some guacamole in your dinner. The delicious and nutritious fruit has gained immense popularity over the last years, linked to a healthy lifestyle. But the underlying truth is tough: Avocado production carries enormous environmental costs that you are probably not aware of.

Mexico produces more avocado than anywhere in the world, but the “green gold”, as it is known, is consumed mainly in North America, Europe and Asia. Each year, 11 billion pounds of avocado are consumed around the world. A few weeks ago, every six minutes, a truck full of avocados was leaving the Mexican state of Michoacán for export to the USA in preparation for the most important date for avocado producers in the year: the Super Bowl, which sees 7% of the annual avocado consumption in only one day.

Top avocado importing countries, 2018
Top avocado importing countries, 2018
Image: Hass Avocado Board

Michoacán produces eight out of 10 Mexican avocados and five out of 10 avocados produced globally. Avocado farming in the state has a land production size equivalent of 196,000 football fields; its regional economy is strongly dependent on a product with a market value of around $2.5 billion a year.

Until two decades ago, US buyers did not have access to Mexican avocado. The US government maintained a ban on imports for 87 years because it was considered to represent a risk to agriculture. In 1997, Michoacán was declared free of the borer worm, and the massive export of avocado began. Exports were highly benefited by the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA); by 2005, Mexican avocado was all over the supermarkets in the United States, currently the most important market in the planet for the fruit. Consumption in the US more than doubled in only 10 years. “Avocados from Mexico” was the first brand in the agricultural sector to pay for a television commercial in the Super Bowl.

Hass avocado sales in the US by year
Hass avocado sales in the US by year
Image: Hass avocado board

Despite this massive creation of value and success, extensive avocado production has substantial and irretrievable environmental costs and damages. Disproportionately huge demand for the fruit is creating a climate change effect. Forest lands with diverse wildlife have been destroyed to produce avocado, and many more were intentionally burned to bypass a Mexican law allowing producers to change the land-use permit to commercial agriculture instead of forest land, if it was lost to burning.

US imports by quarter
US imports by quarter
Image: Hass Avocado Board

Shrubs and old trees are often taken down to provide avocado trees greater sunlight, contributing to deforestation and consequently to global warming and climate change. Currently, in Michoacán’s avocado-producing area, there has been an increase in temperature and erratic rainstorms. Research by the National Autonomous University of Mexico Campus Morelia identified that the state has a new tendency to be increasingly hot and dry, with less intense cold seasons necessary to maintain the environmental balance, and extended extreme hot seasons with increased irregular rainfall and greater cyclone strength. The loss of forest cover and other climate changes means the rate of arrival of the Monarch butterfly to Michoacán has also dropped.

Around 9.5 billion litres of water are used daily to produce avocado – equivalent to 3,800 Olympic pools – requiring a massive extraction of water from Michoacán aquifers. Excessive extraction of water from these aquifers is having unexpected consequences, such as causing small earthquakes. From 5 January to 15 February, 3,247 seismic movements were recorded in Uruapan municipality and surroundings, the most important avocado-producing area in the world. According to local authorities, avocado-related water extraction has opened up subsoil caverns that could be causing these movements.

Small earthquake activity in the avocado crop region
Small earthquake activity in the avocado crop region
Image: Sismologico Nacional de Mexico

One hectare of avocado with 156 trees consumes 1.6 times more than a forest with 677 trees per hectare. When avocado trees are irrigated, because their roots are rather horizontal, the flow through preferential infiltration is less and makes it difficult for the water to seep into the subsoil; 14 times less compared to the pine tree. A study conducted by Carbon Footprint Ltd affirms a small pack of two avocados has an emissions footprint of 846.36g CO2, almost twice the size of one kilo of bananas (480g CO2) and three times the size of a large cappuccino with regular cow milk (235g CO2).

Intensive avocado production has caused biodiversity loss, extreme weather conditions, extensive soil degradation of the soil and is on the brink of causing an entirely human-made environmental disaster.

Deforestation for avocado farming
Deforestation for avocado farming
Image: LA Times

As we develop multistakeholder capitalism, we urgently need to start thinking about the origin of our foods and to create more sustainable consumption food chains. Awareness of the environmental impact of what we consume is the first step to reducing the climate impact of our food. The avocado situation makes it plain that not only meat is imposing a heavy environmental toll.

Despite all this, there are some solutions to reducing avocado’s environmental impact. Firstly, we need to demand as consumers an international certification of sustainable farming and fair trade for the avocados sold in supermarkets and stores – to ensure they are not the product of deforestation, organized crime, or indiscriminate exploitation of aquifers.

Secondly, trade agreements need to include the environmental impact in their clauses related to exports. Consumption in one country should not be at the cost of destroying the origin country. Mexico also needs to change its law to prevent and punish the burning of forest land for avocado production.

Food

What is the World Economic Forum doing to help ensure global food security?

Two billion people in the world currently suffer from malnutrition and according to some estimates, we need 60% more food to feed the global population by 2050. Yet the agricultural sector is ill-equipped to meet this demand: 700 million of its workers currently live in poverty, and it is already responsible for 70% of the world’s water consumption and 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions.

New technologies could help our food systems become more sustainable and efficient, but unfortunately the agricultural sector has fallen behind other sectors in terms of technology adoption.

Launched in 2018, the Forum’s Innovation with a Purpose Platform is a large-scale partnership that facilitates the adoption of new technologies and other innovations to transform the way we produce, distribute and consume our food.

With research, increasing investments in new agriculture technologies and the integration of local and regional initiatives aimed at enhancing food security, the platform is working with over 50 partner institutions and 1,000 leaders around the world to leverage emerging technologies to make our food systems more sustainable, inclusive and efficient.

Learn more about Innovation with a Purpose’s impact and contact us to see how you can get involved.

Finally, if any of this does not happen, we need to rethink our diet and lifestyle trends and reduce the consumption of avocado to minimise our personal contribution to the environmental impact caused by “green gold”. We live a global and fully integrated planet where what you happily eat with your friends and family while watching sports could be destroying entire ecosystems. This will affect you in the long run – think about this the next time you’re eating your guacamole and tortilla chips.

the sting Milestone

Featured Stings

Can we feed everyone without unleashing disaster? Read on

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

Trump’s Pandemic Failure: A Missed Opportunity

Young people struggling in digital world, finds latest OECD PISA survey

Governments must take further action to boost job opportunities at an older age

EU Youth Conference in Riga concludes with recommendations for ministers

Human Rights breaches in Russia, Afghanistan and Burkina Faso

5G is here: PT Expo China 2019 will be held October 31 – November 3, in association with The European Sting

FROM THE FIELD: Crisis in Kassala FROM THE FIELD: Crisis in Kassala

Car-free day – and the other 364 days of the year

Oh, well, you are wrong, Google responds to the European Commission

As the Universal Declaration of Human Rights turns 70 – is it time for a new approach?

Humanitarian crisis in Yemen remains the worst in the world, warns UN

Google and Apple suddenly realise that doing business in EU is tough?

Parliament elects the von der Leyen Commission

David Attenborough’s worried about this ocean threat – and it’s not plastic

5 ways Coca-Cola is cleaning up its plastic footprint in Africa

The moment of truth for global energy transition is here

How the ‘California effect’ could shape a global approach to ethical AI

Somalia has ‘once in a generation’ gender equality opportunity – UN Women chief

‘No justification’ for attacks against civilians, UN envoy says on mounting cross-border violence in Gaza

The European Commission and EU consumer authorities publish final assessment of dialogue with Volkswagen

State aid: Commission approves €1.2 billion French “Fonds de solidarité” scheme for small enterprises in temporary financial difficulties due to coronavirus outbreak

Hurricane Dorian: Bahamas death toll expected to rise as thousands remain missing

The time for cities to get smart is now

Turning Europe into a giant wind farm could power the entire world

Taliban-led violence during recent Afghan polls leaves record high numbers of civilians dead – UN

‘Agile’, multilateral response vital to combat terrorism – UN chief Guterres

EU adopts rebalancing measures in reaction to US steel and aluminium tariffs

While EU Open Days 2013 discuss the 2020 strategy, Microsoft shares a glimpse of EU 2060

Fail fast, fail better: 3 ways companies can master innovation

Turkey caught in a vicious Syrian circle bringing terror and war at home

More than 3,400 classrooms damaged or destroyed by Cyclone Idai in Mozambique, says UN Children’s Fund

Coronavirus: Commission welcomes Parliament’s quick green light for proposed new resources to protect lives and livelihoods

We can’t rid Asia of natural disasters. But we can prepare for them

“InvestEU”: MEPs support new programme to boost financing for jobs and growth

Here are 3 alternative visions for the future of work

From diamonds to recycling: how blockchain can drive responsible and ethical businesses

UN Committee says Ebola in DR Congo still an international public health emergency

The 8 pieces of digital DNA we need to thrive in the AI age

EU Commission: a rise in wages and salaries may help create more jobs

ECB asks for more subsidies to banks

Main results of EU Environment Council, 25/06/2018

European Junior Enterprise Network – Ready to take the Step Into the Future?

Global Report on Food Crises reveals scope of food crises as COVID-19 poses new risks to vulnerable countries

Nairobi summit: Women’s empowerment a ‘game changer’ for sustainable development

Why will Paris upcoming “loose” climate change agreement work better than the previous ones?

Killings and violence targeting ethnic group in DR Congo ‘may amount to crimes against humanity’

Global leaders and companies pledge to reduce the gender pay gap by 2030

How to create a world where healthcare is a right, not a luxury

UN chief praises Malaysia’s death penalty repeal as ‘major step forward’

Environmental labelling, information and management schemes are central to the circular economy

South African women’s fury at gender-based attacks spills onto the streets

3 lessons from India in creating equal access to vaccines

A good night’s sleep ‘washes’ your brain, scientists say

Antisemitism, intolerance, can be unlearned, Guterres tells New York commemoration

In this ‘wildland’ farm in Britain, species thrive and yields are high

What do Europeans believe about the crisis and the possible way out?

This fascinating map shows how food moves around the US

Billions for sustainable investments – Germany’s plan for a green recovery

UN chief urges Hamas and Israel to ‘step back from the brink of another devastating conflict’ in Gaza

In New Zealand it takes less than a day to start a business

More Stings?

Advertising

Trackbacks

  1. […] February 24, 2020 By World Economic Forum via The European Sting […]

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s