COP21 Breaking News_09 December: The Draft Agreement Updated

UNFCC COP21 Paris 2015

DRAFT PARIS OUTCOME

A. DRAFT AGREEMENT

DRAFT TEXT
on
COP 21 agenda item 4 (b)
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (decision 1/CP.17) Adoption of a protocol, another legal instrument, or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all Parties

Version 1 of 9 December 2015 at 15:00

[The Parties to this Agreement,

DRAFT PARIS OUTCOME1 Proposal by the President

A. DRAFT AGREEMENT

Being Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, hereinafter referred to as “the

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circumstances,2

In pursuit of the objective of the Convention, and being guided by its principles, including the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national

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States (SIDS),

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Emphasizing the need to respond to the urgent threat of climate change on the basis of the best available scientific knowledge, in particular, the assessment reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,

[Noting that the largest share of historical global emissions of greenhouse gases has originated in developed countries, that per capita emissions in developing countries are still relatively low and that the share of global emissions originating in developing countries will grow to meet their social and development needs, ]

[Recognizing that Parties should take action to address climate change in accordance with evolving economic and emission trends, which will continue to evolve post-2020, ]

[Emphasizing the importance of Parties promoting, protecting and respecting all human rights, the right to health, and the rights of indigenous peoples, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations and under occupation, and the right to development, in accordance with their obligations, as well as promoting gender equality and the empowerment of women, when taking action to address climate change,]

Noting the needs and integrity of terrestrial ecosystems, oceans and Mother Earth,

Also taking account of the specific needs and special situations of the least developed country (LDC) Parties as set out in Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Convention, and the specific circumstances of small island developing

1 The Article numbers and the paragraph numbering as well as the cross-references contained in this version will need to be updated.

2 There is a need to explore coherence between preambular paragraphs 2, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 14 and issues being discussed under other parts of the text of the draft Agreement.

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Taking into account the imperatives of a just transition of the workforce and the creation of decent work and quality jobs in accordance with nationally defined development priorities,

Recognizing the fundamental priority of safeguarding food security and ending hunger, and the particular vulnerabilities of food production systems to the adverse impacts of climate change,

Also recognizing the importance of the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1(d), of the Convention, including through internationally agreed approaches,

Affirming the importance of education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information and cooperation at all levels on the matters addressed in this Agreement, and recognizing the importance of engagements of all levels of government and various actors, in accordance with respective national legislations of Parties, in addressing climate change,

Have agreed as follows:
For the purposes of this Agreement, the definitions contained in Article 1 of the Convention apply.

Article 1 (DEFINITIONS) Article 2 (PURPOSE)

  1. The purpose of this Agreement is to [enhance the implementation of the Convention and to achieve its objective] [further implement the objective of the Convention set out in its Article 2 [through enhanced action, cooperation and support]] so as:
    1. (a)  To hold the increase in the global average temperature toOption 1: below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,Option 2: well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels [and to [rapidly] scale up global efforts to limit temperature increase to below 1.5 °C] [,while recognizing that in some regions and vulnerable ecosystems high risks are projected even for warming above 1.5 °C],Option 3: below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels,

      taking into account the best available science, equity, sustainable development, the need to ensure food security and the availability of means of implementation, by ensuring deep reductions in global greenhouse gas [net] emissions;

    2. (b)  To increase their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change [and to effectively respond to the impacts of the implementation of response measures and to loss and damage];
    3. (c)  To pursue sustainable development in a manner that fosters climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions, and that does not threaten food production and distribution;
    4. (d)  To make finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low-emission and climate-resilient development, in the context of sustainable development priorities and efforts to eradicate poverty.
  2. [This Agreement will be implemented on the basis of equity and in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances and on the basis of respect for human rights.]Article 2bis (GENERAL)

Option 1:

  1. [All Parties shall undertake efforts defined in Articles 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement as set out in its Article 2, and communicate such efforts in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Over time such efforts will represent a progression taking into account Parties different national circumstances and development stages while recognizing that the extent of the efforts taken by developing country Parties will depend on the extent of support they receive.]
  2. Subsequent efforts will be informed by the results of the global stocktake as defined in Article 10, and represent a progression taking into account Parties’ common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.]

Option 2:

1. [All Parties [shall] regularly prepare, communicate [and implement] [intended] nationally determined [contributions][components] [on [mitigation] and adaptation] [undertakings in adaptation planning] [and means

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of implementation]3 [towards achieving the [purpose of this Agreement as set out in Article 2 of the Convention] [objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2],] [in accordance with Article 4 of the Convention] [in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement, including the specific provisions related to mitigation and adaptation and means of implementation.]

  1. Each Party’s [intended] nationally determined contribution will represent a progression in the light of Parties’ differentiated responsibilities and commitments under the Convention.
  2. The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement this Agreement will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments on the provision of finance, technology development and transfer and capacity-building.
  3. Successive [intended] nationally determined contributions will be [informed by the result of the global stocktake as defined in Article 10 of the Convention] and communicated before the expiry of the previous [intended] nationally determined contribution by the Party concerned.]Article 3 (MITIGATION)

{Collective long-term goal}

1. Option 1: Parties collectively aim to reach the global temperature goal referred to in Article 2 through [a peaking of global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, recognizing that peaking requires deeper cuts of emissions of developed countries and will be longer for developing countries; rapid reductions thereafter to [40– 70 per cent][70–95 per cent] below 2010 levels by 2050; toward achieving net zero greenhouse gas emissions [by the end][after the middle] of the century] informed by best available science, on the basis of equity and in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.

Option 2: Parties collectively aim to reach the global temperature goal referred to in Article 2 through a long- term global low emissions [transformation toward [climate neutrality][decarbonization]] over the course of this century informed by best available science, on the basis of equity and in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication.

{Individual efforts}

2. Each Party shall regularly prepare, communicate [and maintain] [successive] ###4 and [shall][should][other] [take appropriate domestic measures] [have in place][identify and] [pursue] [implement] [[domestic laws], [nationally determined] policies or other measures] [designed to] [implement][achieve][carry out][that support the implementation of] its ###].

{Differentiated efforts}

Option 1:

3. In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Convention, developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex I shall undertake quantified economy-wide absolute emission reduction and limitation commitments/targets, which are comparable, measurable, reportable and verifiable, cover all greenhouse gases and are implemented domestically without any conditions.

3bis. In accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7, of the Convention, developing country Parties should undertake diversified enhanced mitigation actions/efforts in a measurable, reportable, and verifiable manner, in the context of sustainable development and supported and enabled by the provision of adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties.

Option 2:

3. Each Party that has previously communicated absolute economy wide emissions reduction or limitation targets should continue to do so and all Parties should aim to do so over time.

3bis. Developed country Parties should continue to take the lead.5 {Flexibility}

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Without prejudice to the terminology to be used to describe Parties’ commitments, undertakings and efforts
under the Paris Agreement
Without prejudice to how the final agreement ‘###’ will refer to the mitigation commitments/contributions/other of Parties and pending resolution to Article 2bis. Options include:
Option 1: Nationally Determined Mitigation [Contribution][Commitment] (NDMC)
Option 2: Nationally Determined Mitigation Component of the Contribution referred to in Article 2bis (NDMCC) Option 3: Mitigation Component of the [Intended] Nationally Determined Contribution (MCNDC)
Option 4: INDC which can be in the form of co-benefits resulting from the Party’s adaptation contributions and

economic diversification plans.

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4. LDCs [and SIDS][and African states] may communicate their ### at their discretion, including information on strategies, plans and actions for low greenhouse gas development, reflecting their special circumstances.

{Support}6

5. Option 1: Developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention [and other Parties with the capacity to do so] shall provide new and additional financial resources, technology transfer and capacity-building to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations under this Article.

Option 2: Developing country Parties7 are eligible for support in the implementation of this Article.

Option 3: The extent to which developing country Parties will effectively implement their commitments will depend on the effective implementation by developed country Parties of their commitments related to financial resources, transfer of technology and capacity-building.

{Progression/ambition}

6. Each Party’s successive ### [shall][should][will] represent a progression beyond the Party’s previous efforts and reflect its highest possible ambition [based on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances].

{Information}

7. [In communicating their ###, all Parties shall provide the information necessary for the clarity, transparency and understanding in accordance with decision 1/CP.21 and any subsequent decisions of the CMA].

{Timing}

  1. Parties shall communicate an ### every five years in accordance with decisions of the CMA being informed by the outcomes of the global stock take referred to in Article 10.
  2. The CMA shall decide on common timeframes for ####, no later than its [X] session.

{Adjustments}

10. A Party may at any time adjust its existing ### with a view to enhancing its level of ambition [, in accordance with the simplified adjustment procedure referred to in Article 19, paragraph 3].

{Housing}

11. The ### communicated by Parties shall be recorded [in an online registry maintained by the secretariat][ in Annex [X] to this Agreement].

{Accounting}

12. Parties shall [track progress towards][account for] their ###. In [tracking progress towards][accounting for] their ###, Parties shall promote environmental integrity, transparency, accuracy, completeness, comparability and consistency, and ensure the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the CMA.

{Methods and guidance}

13. In the context of their ###, when recognizing and implementing mitigation actions with respect to anthropogenic emissions and removals, Parties [may draw from and build on] [shall take into account], as appropriate, existing methods and guidance, under the Convention and from the IPCC as adopted by the COP.

{Response measures}

[Preamble: Parties acknowledge the importance of cooperation, including around economic diversification to reduce the adverse impacts of the implementation of response measures.]

  1. [Parties shall give full consideration to what actions are necessary under this Agreement to meet the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties arising from the impact of the implementation of response measures, including in terms of economic diversification, and taking into consideration that poverty eradication and social and economic development are the first and overriding priorities of developing country Parties.
  2. Parties agree to enhance actions under this Agreement, including through strengthening institutional arrangements, and to adopt modalities and procedures for enhancing those arrangements. To this end the CMA shall establish a cooperative mechanism to address the adverse impacts of the implementation of response measures on developing country Parties, as included in decision -/CP.21.]

{REIOs}

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Placeholder until support is addressed.
Without prejudice to the final outcome of the negotiations, in all cases in the draft Agreement and the draft Decision text where, in the context of support, it says “developing country Parties” read “developing country Parties [, including Parties whose special circumstances are recognized by the COP][and other Parties in need of support, including countries with economies in transition]”

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  1. Parties, including regional economic integration organisations and their member States, that have reached an agreement to [implement their ###s jointly] [act under Article 3, paragraph 2, jointly], shall notify the secretariat of the terms of the agreement, including the emission level allocated to each Party within the relevant time period, at the time when they communicate their ###s. The secretariat shall in turn inform the Parties and signatories to the Convention of the terms of this Agreement.
  2. [In the event of failure by the] [Each] Part[y] [ies] to such an agreement [to achieve their common ###s], each party to that agreement] shall be responsible for its emission level as set out in that agreement in accordance with paragraph [14] above and Articles [9] and [11].
  3. If Parties [implementing their ###s jointly] [acting jointly]do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization which is itself a Party to this Agreement, each member State of that regional economic integration organization individually, and together with the regional economic integration organization shall[, in the event of failure to achieve the common ###s,] be responsible for its emission level as set out in the agreement notified under paragraph (1) in accordance with paragraph [14] above and Articles [9] and [11].
  4. If Parties [implementing] [acting] jointly do so in the framework of, and together with, a regional economic integration organization, any alteration in the composition of the organization shall not affect existing ###s and shall only apply for the purposes of those ###s that are communicated subsequent to the alteration.

{Cooperative approaches}

20. [Parties shall, where engaging on a voluntary basis in cooperative approaches that involve the use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards ###, promote sustainable development and environmental integrity and apply robust accounting to ensure, inter alia, the avoidance of double counting, in accordance with guidance adopted by the CMA.]

{Long-term strategies}

21. All Parties should voluntarily formulate and communicate long-term low-emission development strategies.

[Article 3 bis] (REDD-PLUS)

  1. Parties are encouraged to conserve and enhance, as appropriate, sinks and reservoirs of GHG as referred to inArticle 4 paragraph 1(d) of the Convention.
  2. Parties are encouraged to incentivize,[including by scaling up resources] the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the conservation and sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries, while enhancing the non-carbon benefits; and to support alternative policy approaches, such as joint mitigation and adaption approaches for the integral and sustainable management of forests, including alleviating poverty and building ecosystem resilience, in accordance with previous COP decisions related to forests.[Article 3 ter] (MECHANISM TO SUPPORT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT)

{Proposed Mechanism 1}

  1. [A mechanism to support sustainable development [in developing country Parties] is hereby established under the authority and guidance of the CMA, shall be supervised by a body designated by the CMA, and shall aim to:
    1. (a)  Promote sustainable development [in developing country Parties];
    2. (b)  Incentivise and facilitate participation in mitigation action by public and private entities under the responsibility of a Party;
    3. (c)  Enhance mitigation ambition by [developing country] Parties [, by incentivising supplementary voluntary climate action, beyond their ###];
    4. (d)  Deliver, where desired by participating Parties, a net decrease in, or avoidance of, emissions;
    5. (e)  Assist Parties [with a ### reflecting an absolute target in relation to a base year] to fulfil their ###, through the use of mitigation outcomes from mitigation activities [in developing country Parties];
    6. (f)  Ensure environmental integrity, including by ensuring that such mitigation shall not be claimed more than once, in accordance with guidance adopted by the CMA pursuant to Article [3, paragraph 14].]
  2. [The CMA shall ensure that a share of the proceeds from activities under the mechanism are used to cover administrative expenses as well as to assist developing country Parties that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change to meet the costs of adaptation.]
  3. [The CMA shall adopt modalities and procedures for this mechanism at its first session.]

{Proposed Mechanism 2}

1. [A mechanism is hereby established to support holistic and integrated approaches to sustainable development in harmony with nature, to be available to assist [developing country] Parties in fulfilling their ###, including, in a

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balanced manner, mitigation, adaptation, provision of finance, technology transfer and capacity building. This mechanism shall be under the authority and guidance of the CMA, shall be supervised by a body designated by the CMA, and shall aim to:

  1. (a)  Enhance mitigation and adaptation ambition and the provision or mobilization of public financing, technology transfer and capacity building, in an integrated manner for climate action;
  2. (b)  Enhance non-market-based approaches and enable participation in joint cost-effective mitigation and adaptation actions by public and private entities acting under the responsibility of a Party;
  3. (c)  Support the implementation of the joint mitigation and adaptation approach for the integral and sustainable management of forests as an alternative policy approach to results-based payments;
  4. (d)  Fully respect mitigation contributions of participating Parties to ensure that the global mitigation effort is not undermined.

2. The CMA shall adopt modalities and procedures for the mechanism at its first session.]

Article 4 (ADAPTATION)

  1. Parties hereby establish the global goal of enhancing adaptive capacity, strengthening resilience and reducing vulnerability to climate change, [in accordance with the objective, principles and provisions of the Convention, including common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities,] with a view to contributing to sustainable development [and ensuring adaptation in the context of the goal of holding the increase in the global average temperature below [2 degrees C][[2 or] 1.5 degrees C referred to in Article 2].
  2. Parties recognize that adaptation is a global challenge faced by all with local, subnational, national, regional and international dimensions, and that it is a key component of and contribution to the long-term global response to climate change to protect people, livelihoods and ecosystems, taking into account the urgent and immediate needs of those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable.
  3. Adaptation efforts of developing countries shall be recognized, in accordance with the modalities to be adopted by the CMA at its first session.
  4. Parties recognize the need for adaptation regardless of the level of mitigation reached, that greater levels of mitigation can reduce the need for additional adaptation efforts, [and] that greater adaptation needs involve greater adaptation costs[ and that greater rates and magnitude of climate change increase the likelihood of exceeding adaptation limits].
  5. Parties acknowledge that adaptation action should follow a country-driven, gender-responsive, participatory and fully transparent approach, taking into consideration vulnerable groups, communities and ecosystems, and should be based on and guided by the best available science and, as appropriate, traditional, indigenous peoples knowledge and local knowledge systems, with a view to integrating adaptation into relevant socioeconomic and environmental policies and actions, where appropriate.
  6. Parties recognize the importance of support and international cooperation for adaptation efforts and the importance of taking into account the needs of those developing countries that are particularly vulnerable
    [, recognizing the particular vulnerabilities of the least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS)].
  7. Parties should strengthen their cooperation for enhancing action on adaptation, taking into account the Cancun Adaptation Framework, including with regard to:
    1. (a)  Sharing information, good practices, experiences and lessons learned, including, as appropriate, as these relate to the science, planning, policies and implementation of adaptation actions;
    2. (b)  Strengthening institutional arrangements, including those under the Convention, to support the synthesis of relevant information and knowledge and the provision of technical support and guidance to the Parties;
    3. (c)  Strengthening scientific knowledge on climate, including research, systematic observation of the climate system and early warning systems, in a manner that informs climate services and supports decision- making;
    4. (d)  Assisting developing country Parties [[and other countries] in need] to identify effective adaptation practices, adaptation needs, priorities, support provided and received for adaptation actions and efforts, and challenges and gaps, in a manner consistent with encouraging good practices;
    5. (e)  Improving the effectiveness and durability of adaptation actions.
  8. Encourages United Nations specialized organizations and agencies to support the efforts of Parties to implement the actions referred to in paragraph 7 of this Article, taking into account the provisions of paragraph 5 of this Article.
  9. Each Party shall, as appropriate, engage in the implementation of adaptation planning processes and actions, including the development or enhancement of relevant plans, policies and/or contributions, which may include:

(a) Implementation of adaptation actions, undertakings and/or efforts;

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  1. (b)  The process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans;
  2. (c)  Assessment of climate change impacts and vulnerability, with a view to formulating nationally determined prioritized actions, taking into account vulnerable people, places and ecosystems;
  3. (d)  Monitoring and evaluation and learning from adaptation plans, policies, programmes and actions;
  4. (e)  Building resilience of socioeconomic and ecological systems, including through economic diversification and sustainable management of natural resources.
  1. Each Party shall, as appropriate, submit an adaptation communication, which may include its priorities, support needs, plans and actions.
  2. The adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article shall be, as appropriate, submitted and updated independently, or as a component of or in conjunction with other communications, including a national adaptation plan, a[n intended] nationally determined contribution referred to in Article [3, paragraph 2][2 bis.] of this Agreement, and/or a national communication.
  3. Developing country Parties [[and other countries ]in need] shall receive continuous and enhanced international support for the implementation of paragraphs 9 to 11 of this Article, in accordance with the provisions of Articles 6, 7 and 8 of this Agreement.
  4. There shall be a global stocktake on adaptation every 5 years, consistent with the global stocktake referred to in Article 10, and guided by modalities to be adopted by the CMA at its first session, with the purpose of:
    1. (a)  Recognizing and enhancing the implementation of adaptation action based on the adaptation communication referred to in paragraph 10 of this Article;
    2. (b)  Assessing the adequacy and effectiveness of support for adaptation;
    3. (c)  Reviewing the overall progress in achieving the global goal on adaptation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.Article 58 (LOSS AND DAMAGE)

Option I: The following text to be included as Article 5 (Loss and Damage)

Option II: The following text to be part of Article 4 alongside adaptation provision

  1. [The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts shall serve this Agreement.
  2. Upon the completion of its review at the twenty-second session of the COP,9 the Warsaw International Mechanism shall be subject to the authority and guidance of the CMA and supported through the Financial Mechanism of the Convention.
  3. A climate change displacement coordination facility shall be established under the [Warsaw International Mechanism][CMA] to help coordinate efforts to address climate change induced displacement, migration and planned relocation.
  4. A process to develop approaches to address irreversible and permanent damage resulting from human-induced climate change will be initiated under the [Warsaw International Mechanism][CMA] with a view to completing this process within four years.]Article 6 (FINANCE)

{Directional goal}

1. Developed country Parties shall provide [new,] [additional,] [adequate,] [predictable,] [accessible,] [sustained] and [scaled-up] financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation. Other Parties may on a voluntary, complementary basis, provide resources to developing countries, including through South-South cooperation initiatives.

{Mobilization}

2. Option 1: All Parties shall take action to mobilize, and/or facilitate the mobilisation of, climate finance from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including additional sources, as well as through facilitative policy frameworks, in line with their respective and evolving responsibilities and capabilities, with developed country Parties taking the lead, noting the significant role of public funds. [Some Parties may need support in order to take action.]

Option 2: Developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex II to the Convention shall mobilize financial resources beyond their previous efforts, supporting country-driven strategies, and taking into account the needs and priorities of developing country Parties.

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The text in this version is replicated from that included in FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6/Rev.1, as deliberations are still underway to produce a revised version.
Decision 2/CP.19, paragraph 15.

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Option 3: As part of a shared effort, led by developed country Parties, Parties should cooperate to promote the mobilization of climate finance from a wide variety of sources, instruments and channels, including public, private, bilateral, multilateral, domestic, and international.

{Mainstreaming}

3. [Parties should integrate climate considerations, including resilience, into international development assistance.]

{Scale}

4. Option 1: The mobilization of climate finance [shall][should] be scaled up in a predictable and transparent manner [beyond previous efforts] [from USD 100 billion per year] from 2020[, recognizing the important role of the Green Climate Fund in the scaling up of financial resources for the implementation of this agreement, as well as other multilateral mechanisms and other efforts].

Option 2: The provision and mobilization of financial resources by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall represent a progression beyond their previous efforts with clearly identified pathways to annual expected levels of available resources towards achieving short-term collective quantified goals for the post 2020 period to be periodically established and reviewed. Financial resources shall be scaled up from a floor of US$100 billion per year, including a clear burden-sharing formula, and in line with needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties in the context of contributing to the achievement of the purpose as defined in Article 2 of this Agreement. It shall take into account an equitable regional distribution of financial resources and a gender-sensitive approach, and include the implementation of Articles 5 and 6 of the Convention.

Option 3: As part of a shared mobilization effort Parties should, in accordance with paragraphs X-Y, enhance the scale and effectiveness of climate finance by: mobilizing climate finance from a wide variety of instruments and channels; provide, when in a position to do so, support to developing countries in need of support; appropriately prioritize support; improve enabling environments; integrate climate considerations into international development assistance; and reduce international support for high-emissions investments.

{Balance mitigation – adaptation}

5. The provision of scaled-up financial resources should aim to achieve a balance between adaptation and mitigation, taking into account country-driven strategies, and the priorities and needs of developing country Parties, especially those that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change, [including LDCs, SIDS, and Africa], considering the need for public and grant-based resources for adaptation.

{Loss and damage}

6. The CMA shall ensure that adequate support is available to the International Mechanism to address Loss and Damage as defined in Article (XX), as well as to promote and support the development and implementation of approaches to address irreversible and permanent damage resulting from human-induced climate change.

{Communication}

7. Option 1: [Developed country] Parties [and other developed Parties included in Annex II] [shall][should] [periodically][biennially] communicate [relevant, indicative] information on [the [provision] [and mobilization] [and implementation] of [financial resources][support to developing countries], including [available] quantitative and qualitative information on the] projected [efforts to mobilize [and attract] climate finance][levels of public [climate finance][financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties].

Option 2: Developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall biennially communicate on the provision and mobilization of financial resources, including quantitative and qualitative information on the projected levels of public financial resources to be provided to developing country Parties.

Option 3: Parties should periodically communicate relevant, indicative information about their plans related to paragraphs X-Y, as appropriate.

{Stocktake}

8. The stocktake shall take into account available information by [developed country] Parties and Agreement bodies on efforts related to climate finance. {Note: Pending outcome of discussions on Article 10}

{MRV}

9. Transparent, complete, consistent, comparable, and accurate information on support for developing country Parties provided, mobilized through public interventions and received shall [regularly][biennially] be provided by [X] in accordance with the modalities, procedures and guidelines to be adopted at the CMA, at its first session, as stipulated in Article 9, paragraph 8. {Note: pending outcome of Article 9}

{Financial Mechanism}

10. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, including its operating entities, shall serve as the financial mechanism of this Agreement.

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11. The CMA shall provide guidance to the entities entrusted with the operation of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention on the policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria related to this Agreement, through the COP.

{Access}

12. The Financial Mechanism of the Convention, and its operating entities, serving the Agreement shall aim to ensure efficient access to support for developing country Parties.

Note: A joint submission was received from Turkey and Ukraine for Art 2.bis “Parties with special circumstances have been recognized by the COP and other Parties that are undergoing the process of transition to market economy, shall have access to financial support, including for the transfer of technology, under the Agreement to enhance implementation of the policies and strategies in relation to climate change for action.

Article 7 (TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER)

  1. All Parties[, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention, in particular Article 4 [and Article 11]], noting the importance of technology for the implementation of mitigation and adaptation actions under this Agreement and recognizing existing deployment and dissemination efforts, [shall][should] strengthen cooperative action [to accelerate and upscale] [on] [technology development and transfer] [through] [, inter alia:
    1. (a)  [Improving endogenous capacities and enabling environments according to nationally determined needs and priorities, in accordance with Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention];
    2. (b)  [Addressing barriers [in accessing to][for] the transfer of safe, appropriate and environmentally and socially sound technologies [by developing countries];]
    3. (c)  Fostering cooperative approaches to research and development].
  2. Parties share a long-term vision on the importance of fully realizing technology development and transfer in order to improve resilience to climate change and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
  3. A technology framework is hereby established to provide overarching guidance to the work of the Technology Mechanism in promoting and facilitating enhanced action on technology development and transfer in order to support the implementation of this Agreement, in pursuit of the long-term vision referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  4. Accelerating, encouraging and enabling innovation is critical for an effective, long-term global response to climate change and providing affordable and reliable energy access and promoting economic development. Such effort shall be supported, as appropriate, by the Technology Mechanism and Financial Mechanism of the Convention, for research and development, collaborative approaches, and [meeting the cost of the transfer of][facilitating access to] technology, in particular for early stages of the technology cycle, to developing countries.
  5. The Technology Mechanism shall serve this Agreement.
  6. Developing country Parties are eligible for support in the implementation of this Article.
  7. [In accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 3[ and 5][, 5 and 9], of the Convention,] [developed country] [All] Parties [and other Parties included in Annex II to the Convention] shall provide support, including financial support, for strengthening cooperative action on technology development and transfer and for the implementation of the technology framework through the Technology Mechanism and the Financial Mechanism. [The overall implementation of the commitments will be assessed periodically through a global stocktake in accordance with Article 10 of this Agreement.] Parties shall regularly communicate the progress in implementing the provision of support [in a measurable, reportable and verifiable manner] [in accordance with Articles 6 and 9 of this Agreement].Article 8 (CAPACITY-BUILDING)
  1. Capacity-building under this Agreement should enhance the capacity and ability of [countries] [developing country Parties, in particular countries with the least capacity, such as LDCs and SIDS and African countries [, in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention]] to take effective climate change action, including, inter alia, to implement adaptation and mitigation actions, and facilitate technology development, dissemination and deployment, access to climate finance, relevant aspects of education, training and public awareness, and the transparent, timely and accurate communication of information.
  2. Capacity-building should be country-driven, based on and responsive to national needs, and foster country ownership of Parties, [in particular, for developing country Parties,] including at the national, subnational and local levels. Capacity-building should be guided by lessons learned, including those from capacity-building activities under the Convention, and should be an effective, iterative process that is participatory, cross-cutting and gender-responsive.
  3. All Parties should cooperate to enhance the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement.

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Developed country Parties should enhance support for actions for capacity-building in developing countries.

  1. All Parties enhancing the capacity of developing country Parties to implement this Agreement, including through regional, bilateral and multilateral approaches, shall regularly communicate on these actions or measures on capacity-building. Developing country Parties shall regularly communicate progress made on implementing capacity-building plans, policies, actions or measures to implement this Agreement. {Note: pending on Article 9}
  2. Capacity-building activities shall be enhanced through appropriate institutional arrangements to support the implementation of this Agreement, including the appropriate institutional arrangements established under the Convention that serve this Agreement [to the extent that they serve this Agreement]. The CMA shall decide on the initial institutional arrangements for capacity-building at its first session.Article 8 bisParties shall cooperate in taking measures, as appropriate, to enhance climate change education, training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information, recognizing the importance of these steps with respect to enhancing actions under this Agreement.Article 9 (TRANSPARENCY)
  1. Option 1: A robust transparency framework covering both action and support, differentiated between developed and developing countries, building on the arrangements under the Convention, related decisions of the COP and mechanisms established by the Cancun Agreements (decision 1/CP.16), applicable to all Parties, and providing flexibility to developing countries is hereby established.Option 2: A unified and robust transparency framework, covering both action and support, with built-in flexibility to take into account Parties’ differing capacities, and applicable to all Parties is hereby established.Option 3: Building on existing arrangements under the Convention, a transparency framework for action and support that takes into account Parties different capacities and is applicable to all Parties is hereby established.
  2. The transparency framework shall provide flexibility in the implementation of the provisions of this Article to developing country Parties in the light of their capabilities. The modalities, procedures and guidelines referred to in paragraph 8 of this Article shall reflect such flexibility.
  3. The transparency framework shall be guided by the principles of the Convention and building on the provisions and arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries and small island developing States, and be implemented in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respectful of national sovereignty, and avoid placing undue burden on Parties and the secretariat.
  4. The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to:
    1. (a)  Provide a clear understanding of climate change actions in the light of the objective as set by Article 2 of the Convention;
    2. (b)  Provide a clear understanding of the anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of individual Parties;
    3. (c)  Facilitate understanding of global aggregate emissions and removals to inform the global stocktake under Article 10;
    4. (d)  Ensure clarity and tracking of progress made towards {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} and achieving individual Parties’ respective mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} under Article 3;
    5. (e)  Provide clarity on Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 4, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps.
  5. The purpose of the framework for transparency of support is to:
    1. (a)  Provide a clear understanding of the support provided and received by relevant individual Parties in the context of climate change actions under Articles 3 and 4;
    2. (b)  Achieve, to the extent possible, a full overview of aggregate financial support provided, to inform the global stocktake under Article 10;
    3. (c)  Ensure clarity and tracking of progress made in providing support in accordance with Articles 6, 7 and 8;
    4. (d)  Ensure clarity and tracking of support needed and received by developing country Parties in accordance with Articles 6, 7 and 8;
    5. (e)  Ensure the avoidance of double counting of financial resources provided.
  6. Each Party shall regularly provide the following information in accordance with guidelines referred to in paragraph 6 of this Article:

(a) Its national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases;

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(b)

Projections of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gas;

(c) Progress made towards achieving individual Parties’ respective mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} under Article 3 including information specific to type of {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2};

  1. (d)  Climate change impacts and actions taken to build resilience and reduce vulnerability, and progress on adaptation actions under Article 4;
  2. (e)  Support provided and received, as relevant, including specific information required under Article 6.13, 6.14, 7 and 8.
  1. Option 1: The information provided by each Party as required under this Article shall be subject to a technical expert review, in accordance with guidelines and procedures adopted by the CMA, with additional flexibility to be given to LDCs and SIDS.The review shall provide a thorough, objective and comprehensive technical assessment of the Party’s implementation and achievement of its nationally determined mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} and other requirements of the Agreement, analyze the extent to which the Parties reporting is in line with the guidelines adopted by the CMA, and identify any areas for improvement in reporting and possible capacity building, in consultation with the Party concerned. The technical expert review shall be carried out by an expert review team that shall produce a report, to be consulted with the Party concerned, for publication by the secretariat and consideration by the CMA. The report shall identify any issues related to compliance in accordance with Article 11. A multilateral and facilitative examination shall consider the information above.Option 2: All information provided by developed country Parties, and shall be reviewed through a robust technical review process followed by a multilateral assessment process, and result in a conclusion with consequences for compliance; All the information provided by developing country Parties should be analyzed through a technical analysis process followed by a multilateral facilitative sharing of views, result in a summary report, in a manner that is nonintrusive, non-punitive and respectful of national sovereignty, according to the level of support received from developed country Parties.
  2. The CMA shall, at its first session, building on experience from the arrangements related to transparency under the Convention, and elaborating on the provisions in this Article, adopt common modalities, procedures and guidelines, as appropriate, for the transparency of action and support. {Placeholder to revisit this para pending outcomes of discussion on accounting}shall form part of the experience drawn upon for the development of modalities, procedures and guidelines under paragraph 8 of this Article.

12. Support shall also be provided for the building of transparency-related capacity of developing countries on a continuous basis.

Article 10 (GLOBAL STOCKTAKE)

  1. The CMA shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals. It shall do so in a comprehensive and facilitative manner, considering mitigation, adaptation and the means of implementation and support, and in light of the best available science [and equity].
  2. The CMA shall undertake its first global stocktake in [2023][2024] and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the CMA.
  3. The outcome of the stocktake shall guide and inform Parties in updating and enhancing their actions and support, in a nationally determined manner, in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.Article 11 (FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE)
  1. A mechanism to facilitate implementation of [and promote compliance with] the provisions of this Agreement ishereby established.
  2. The mechanism referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall consist of a committee that shall be expert-based and facilitative in nature and function in a manner that is transparent, non-adversarial, and non-punitive. The committee shall pay particular attention to the respective national capabilities and circumstances of Parties.

9. The transparency arrangements under the Convention, including national communications, biennial reports and

biennial update reports, international assessment and review (IAR) and international consultation and analysis

(ICA),

  1. Support shall be provided to developing countries for the
  2. Developed country Parties shall provide support to developing country Parties in the implementation of this Article. {to be revised pending global solution in Article 6}

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3. The committee shall operate under modalities and procedures adopted by the CMA at its first session and report annually to the CMA.

Article 12 (CMA)

  1. The Conference of the Parties, the supreme body of the Convention, shall serve as the meeting of the Parties tothis Agreement.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the Conference of the Parties serves as the meeting of the Parties to this Agreement, any member of the Bureau of the Conference of the Parties representing a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from among the Parties to this Agreement.
  4. The CMA shall keep under regular review the implementation of this Agreement and shall make, within its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote its effective implementation. It shall perform the functions assigned to it by this Agreement and shall:
    1. (a)  Establish such subsidiary bodies as deemed necessary for the implementation of this Agreement; and
    2. (b)  Exercise such other functions as may be required for the implementation of this Agreement.
  5. The rules of procedure of the Conference of the Parties and the financial procedures applied under the Convention shall be applied mutatis mutandis under this Agreement, except as may be otherwise decided by consensus by the CMA.
  6. The first session of the CMA shall be convened by the secretariat in conjunction with the first session of the Conference of the Parties that is scheduled after the date of entry into force of this Agreement. Subsequent ordinary sessions of the CMA shall be held in conjunction with ordinary sessions of the COP, unless otherwise decided by the CMA.
  7. Extraordinary sessions of the CMA shall be held at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the CMA or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within six months of the request being communicated to the Parties by the secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
  8. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and the International Atomic Energy Agency, as well as any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the CMA as observers. Any body or agency, whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by this Agreement and which has informed the secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the CMA as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure referred to in paragraph 5 of this Article.Article 13 (SECRETARIAT)
  1. The secretariat established by Article 8 of the Convention shall serve as the secretariat of this Agreement.
  2. Article 8, paragraph 2, of the Convention on the functions of the secretariat, and Article 8, paragraph 3, of the Convention on arrangements made for the functioning of the secretariat shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. The secretariat shall, in addition, exercise the functions assigned to it under this Agreement and by the CMA.Article 14 (SBSTA AND SBI)
  1. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention shall serve, respectively, as the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement. The provisions of the Convention relating to the functioning of these two bodies shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement. Sessions of the meetings of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of this Agreement shall be held in conjunction with the meetings of, respectively, the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation of the Convention.
  2. Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement may participate as observers in the proceedings of any session of the subsidiary bodies. When the subsidiary bodies serve as the subsidiary bodies of this Agreement, decisions under this Agreement shall be taken only by those that are Parties to this Agreement.
  3. When the subsidiary bodies established by Articles 9 and 10 of the Convention exercise their functions with regard to matters concerning this Agreement, any member of the bureaux of those subsidiary bodies representing

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a Party to the Convention but, at that time, not a Party to this Agreement, shall be replaced by an additional member to be elected by and from among the Parties to this Agreement.

Article 15 (BODIES AND INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS TO SERVE AGREEMENT)

  1. Subsidiary bodies or other institutional arrangements established by or under the Convention, other than those referred to in this Agreement, shall serve this Agreement upon a decision of the CMA. The CMA shall specify the functions to be exercised by such bodies or arrangements.
  2. The CMA may provide further guidance to those subsidiary bodies and institutional arrangements [including the functions to be exercised by such bodies and institutional arrangements] [including for members of such bodies and institutional arrangements nominated by Parties to the Convention that are not Parties to this Agreement] [to the extent that these bodies and institutional arrangements serve this Agreement].Article 16 (SIGNATURE AND INSTRUMENTS OF RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL OR ACCESSION)
  1. This Agreement shall be open for signature and subject to ratification, acceptance or approval by States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the Convention. It shall be open for signature at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017. Thereafter, this Agreement shall be open for accession from the day following the date on which it is closed for signature. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
  2. Any regional economic integration organization that becomes a Party to this Agreement without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound by all the obligations under this Agreement. In the case of regional economic integration organizations with one or more member States that are Parties to this Agreement, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respective responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under this Agreement. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under this Agreement concurrently.
  3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by this Agreement. These organizations shall also inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the Parties, of any substantial modification in the extent of their competence.Article 18 (ENTRY INTO FORCE)
  1. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which at least [50][60] Parties to the Convention have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession [, but not earlier than 1 January 2020].]
  2. For each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves this Agreement or accedes thereto after the condition set out in paragraph 1 of this Article for entry into force has been fulfilled, this Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
  3. For the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by its member States.Article 19 (AMENDMENTS)
  1. The provisions of Article 15 of the Convention on the adoption of amendments to the Convention shall applymutatis mutandis to this Agreement.
  2. [Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, a Party may propose an adjustment [[to] [enhance] the efforts expressed by its [mitigation commitment] inscribed in] Annex [X] to this Agreement. A proposal for such an adjustment shall be communicated to the Parties by the secretariat at least three months before the session of the CMA at which it is proposed for adoption.]
  3. [An adjustment proposed by a Party [to enhance] the efforts expressed by its [mitigation commitment] inscribed in Annex [X] to this Agreement shall be considered adopted by the CMA unless more than three fourths of the Parties present and voting object to its adoption. The adopted adjustment shall be communicated by the secretariat to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties, and it shall enter into force on 1 January of the year following the communication by the Depositary. Such adjustments shall be binding upon Parties.]Article 20 (ANNEXES)

1. Annexes to this Agreement shall form an integral part thereof and, unless otherwise expressly provided for, a reference to this Agreement constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto. Such annexes shall be restricted to lists, forms and any other material of a descriptive nature that is of a scientific, technical, procedural or administrative character.

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2. The provisions of Article 16 of the Convention on the adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention shall apply mutatis mutandis to this Agreement.

Article 21 (SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES)
The provisions of Article 14 of the Convention on settlement of disputes shall apply mutatis mutandis to this

Agreement.

Article 22 (VOTING)

  1. Each Party shall have one vote, except as provided in paragraph 2 of this Article.
  2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are Parties to this Agreement. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa.Article 23 (DEPOSITARY)
    The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of this Agreement.Article 24 (RESERVATIONS) No reservations may be made to this Agreement.Article 25 (WITHDRAWAL)
  1. At any time after three years from the date on which this Agreement has entered into force for a Party, that Partymay withdraw from this Agreement by giving written notification to the Depositary.
  2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawal, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawal.
  3. Any Party that withdraws from the Convention shall be considered as also having withdrawn from this Agreement.Article 26 (LANGUAGES)
    The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts areequally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

[Placeholder for Annex X] ]

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Pp1

[The Conference of the Parties,
Recalling decision 1/CP.17 on the establishment of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for

Enhanced Action,

Pp2
1/CP.20,

Pp3

Pp4

Pp5

Welcoming the outcome of “Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development”, in particular its goal 13, and the outcome of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the third International Conference on Financing for Development,

Recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires the widest possible cooperation by all countries, and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions,

Also recognizing that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and that deep reductions in global emissions will be required in order to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention and emphasizing the need for urgency to address climate change,

B. DRAFT DECISION

Also recalling relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties, including decisions 2/CP.18, 1/CP.19 and

I. ADOPTION

  1. Decides to adopt the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (hereinafter referred to as “the Agreement”), contained in the annex;
  2. Requests the Secretary-General of the United Nations to be the Depositary of the Agreement and to have it open for signature in New York, the United States of America, from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017;
  3. Invites the Secretary-General to convene a high-level signature ceremony for the Agreement on 22 April 2016;
  4. Also invites all Parties to the Convention to sign the Agreement at the ceremony to be convened by the Secretary-General, or at their earliest opportunity, and to deposit their respective instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval, or instruments of accession, where appropriate, as soon as possible;
  5. Recognizes that Parties to the Convention may provisionally apply all of the provisions of the Agreement pending its entry into force, and requests Parties to provide notification of any such provisional applications to the Depositary;
  6. Notes that the work of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) in accordance with decision 1/CP.17, paragraph 4, has been completed;
  7. Decides to establish, the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) under the same arrangements, mutatis mutandis, concerning the election of officers to the Bureau of the ADP;
  8. Also decides that the APA shall prepare for the entry into force of the Agreement and for the convening of the first session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Agreement (CMA);
  9. Further decides to oversee the implementation of the work programme resulting from the relevant requests contained in this decision;
  10. Requests the APA to report regularly to the Conference of the Parties (COP) on the progress of its work and to complete its work by the first session of the CMA;
  11. Decides that the APA shall hold its sessions starting in 2016 in conjunction with the sessions of the Convention subsidiary bodies and shall prepare draft decisions to be recommended through the COP to the CMA for consideration and adoption at its first session;

II. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS

  1. Welcomes the intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) that have been communicated by Parties in accordance with decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 2(b);
  2. Reiterates its invitation to all Parties that have not yet done so to communicate to the secretariat their INDCs towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2 as soon as possible and well in advance of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties and in a manner that facilitates the clarity, transparency and understanding of the INDCs;
  3. Requests the secretariat to continue to publish the INDCs communicated by Parties on the UNFCCC website;

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  1. Reiterates its call to developed country Parties, the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism and any other organizations in a position to do so to provide support for the preparation and communication of the INDCs of Parties that may need such support;
  2. Takes note of the synthesis report on the aggregate effect of INDCs communicated by Parties by 1 October 2015, contained in document FCCC/CP/2015/7;
  3. Notes with concern that the estimated aggregate greenhouse gas emission levels resulting from the INDCs in 2025 and 2030 do not fall within least-cost 2 ̊C scenarios, and that much greater emission reduction efforts than those associated with the INDCs will be required in the period after 2025 and 2030 in order to hold the temperature rise to below 2 ̊C or 1.5 ̊C above pre-industrial levels;
  4. Also notes, in this context, the adaptation needs expressed by many developing countries in their INDCs;
  5. Requests the secretariat to update the synthesis report referred to in paragraph 16 above so as to cover all the information in the INDCs communicated by Parties pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 by 4 April 2016 and to make it available by 2 May 2016;
  6. [[Decides][Invites the President of the COP] to convene a facilitative dialogue among Parties to take stock of the collective efforts of Parties in [2018][2019] in relation to progress towards the long-term goal referred to in Article 3, paragraph 1, of the Agreement and to inform the preparation of INDCs pursuant to Article 3, paragraph 8, of the Agreement;]
  7. Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways;

III. DECISIONS TO GIVE EFFECT TO THE AGREEMENT

MITIGATION

{Collective long-term goal applies only to option 1(b) – related to the global carbon budget}

22. [Requests [APA] to develop modalities to implement the distribution of a global carbon budget based on climate justice, considering historical responsibilities, ecological footprint, capabilities, state of development and population;]

{First communication}
23. Invites Parties to communicate their first ### no later than joining the Paris Agreement; {Subsequent communication}

  1. Also invites those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 contains a timeframe up to 2025 to communicate by [2020] [2021] a new ### and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 3, paragraph 8, of the Agreement;
  2. Further invites those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 contains a target up to 2030 to confirm or update by [2020] [2021] their ### and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 3, paragraph 8, of the Agreement;

{Period to CTU}

26. Decides that Parties shall submit to the secretariat their ### at least 9-12 months in advance of the relevant meeting of the CMA prior to [finalization] with a view to facilitating the clarity, transparency and understanding of the ###, including through a synthesis report prepared by the secretariat;

{Features}
27 Requests the [APA] to develop further guidance on features of the ### for consideration and adoption by the

CMA at its first session;

{Information}

  1. Agrees that the information to be provided by Parties communicating their ###, in order to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding, may include, as appropriate, inter alia, quantifiable information on the reference point (including, as appropriate, a base year), time frames and/or periods for implementation, scope and coverage, planning processes, assumptions and methodological approaches including those for estimating and accounting for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and, as appropriate, removals, and how the Party considers that its ### is fair and ambitious, in light of its national circumstances, and how it contributes towards achieving the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2;
  2. Requests the [APA] to develop further guidance for the information to be provided by Parties in order to facilitate clarity, transparency and understanding of ### for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session;

{Housing}

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  1. Also requests the SBI to develop modalities and procedures for the operation and use of the registry referred to in Article 3, paragraph 11, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session;
  2. Further requests the secretariat to make available an interim registry in the first half of 2016 for the recording of ### submitted in accordance with Article 3 of the Agreement, pending the adoption by the CMA of the modalities and procedures referred to in paragraph 30 above;

{Accounting}

32. Requests the APA to elaborate, building on approaches established under the Convention and its related legal instruments as appropriate, guidance for [tracking progress towards][accounting for] their ###, as referred to in Article 3, paragraph 12 of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session, that ensures that:

  1. (a)  Parties account for anthropogenic emissions and removals in accordance with methodologies and common metrics accepted by the IPCC and adopted by the CMA;
  2. (b)  Parties ensure methodological consistency, including on baselines, between the communication and implementation of ###;
  3. (c)  Parties strive to include all categories of anthropogenic emissions or removals in their ### and, once a source, sink or activity is included, continue to include it;
  4. (d)  Parties shall provide an explanation of why any categories of anthropogenic emissions or removals are excluded;
  5. (e)  The use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes towards ### is on the basis of an equivalent adjustment by both the transferring and acquiring Parties;
  6. (f)  Such principles and guidance shall apply to the second and subsequent ###. Parties may elect to apply such guidance to their first ###;

{Response measures}

33. [[Decides to establish a cooperative mechanism by the COP at its [X] session to address the specific needs and concerns of developing country Parties[, including those Parties whose special circumstances are recognized by the COP], arising from the impacts of the implementation of response measures, by building on the work of the forum to develop a specific work programme to be undertaken by the mechanism that shall be implemented, with a view to recommending specific tools, actions and programmes to address the impacts and the implementation gaps in order to avoid and minimize adverse effects on developing country Parties[, including those Parties whose special circumstances are recognized by the COP].[Unilateral measures shall not constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on international trade].[Parties strengthen existing arrangements by establishing a cooperative mechanism (platform) under the Convention to manage the transition to low greenhouse gas emission pathways, which would identify and then measure the impacts and which would use existing tools as much as possible and further develop tools to address identified gaps and ensure their operationalization. The governing body shall develop and adopt modalities for a permanent forum under the SBSTA]];

{Cooperative approaches}
34. [Requests the [APA] to develop and recommend the guidance referred to under Article 3, paragraph 20, of the

Agreement for adoption by the CMA at its first session];

{Long-term strategies}

35. Invites Parties to communicate to the secretariat by 2020 long-term low-emission development strategies and requests the secretariat to publish on the UNFCCC website Parties’ communicated low-emission development strategies as communicated;

{Mechanism to support sustainable development}

{Mechanism 1}

  1. [Recommends that the CMA adopt modalities and procedures for the mechanism established under Article 3ter of the Agreement at its first session, on the basis of:
    1. (a)  Voluntary participation under the responsibility of each Party involved;
    2. (b)  Real, measurable, and long term benefits related to the mitigation of climate change;
    3. (c)  Reductions in emissions that are additional to any that would otherwise occur;
    4. (d)  Verification of mitigation outcomes resulting from mitigation activities by designated operational entities;
    5. (e)  Experience gained with existing mechanisms and approaches adopted under the Convention and its related legal instruments];
  2. [Requests the APA to develop and recommend modalities and procedures for the mechanism established under [Article 3 ter of the Agreement] for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session];

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{Mechanism 2}
38. [Also requests the APA to develop and recommend modalities and procedures for the mechanism established

under [Article 3ter of the Agreement] for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session;]

ADAPTATION

  1. Further requests the AC and the LEG to jointly develop modalities to recognize the adaptation efforts of developing countries, as referred to in Article 4, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, and make recommendations for adoption by the CMA at its first session;
  2. Decides that the activities referred to in Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Agreement should:
    1. (a)  Not be prescriptive or result in the duplication of efforts;
    2. (b)  Facilitate country-owned and country-driven action;
    3. (c)  Involve and facilitate the participation of relevant stakeholders;
    4. (d)  Be participatory and inclusive, building on existing community-driven and traditional adaptation efforts, as appropriate;
    5. (e)  Promote climate resilience and sustainable development;
    6. (f)  Facilitate access to, while not being a prerequisite for, financial, technological and capacity-building support for adaptation action;
  3. Requests the SBI to prepare guidance, as appropriate, in relation to the adaptation communications referred to in Article 4, paragraph 10 of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption of the CMA at its first session;
  4. Also requests the secretariat to record the adaptation communications referred to in Article 4, paragraph 10 of the Agreement in a registry made publicly available by the secretariat;
  5. Decides that institutional arrangements for adaptation under the Convention shall serve this Agreement;
  6. Requests the Adaptation Committee, taking into account its mandate and its second three-year workplan:
    1. (a)  To review the work of adaptation-related institutional arrangements under the Convention in 2017, with a view to preparing recommendations for consideration by the CMA at its first session on ways to enhance the coherence of their work, as appropriate, in order to respond adequately to the needs of Parties;
    2. (b)  To consider methodologies for assessing adaptation needs with a view to assisting developing countries, without placing an undue burden on them, and to make recommendations for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session;
    3. (c)  To operationalize the technical and knowledge platform referred to in paragraph 45 below;
  7. Establishes a technical and knowledge platform under the Nairobi work programme on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change in order to support the technical and knowledge needs arising from implementing, inter alia, the activities referred to in Article 4, paragraphs 7, 9 and 10 of the Agreement;
  8. Invites all relevant United Nations agencies and international, regional and national financial institutions to provide information to Parties through the secretariat on how their development assistance and climate finance programmes incorporate climate-proofing and climate resilience measures;
  9. Requests Parties to strengthen regional cooperation on adaptation where appropriate and, where necessary, establish regional centres and networks, in particular in developing countries, taking into account decision 1/CP.16, paragraph 13;
  10. Requests the AC and the LEG to develop methodologies, and make recommendations for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session, for:
    1. (a)  Taking the steps necessary to ensure that the level of support meets the needs for adaptation in developing countries, in the context of the limit to global average temperature increase referred to in Article 2 of the Agreement;
    2. (b)  Assessing the adequacy and effectiveness of support referred to in Article 4, paragraph 13 (b), of the Agreement;
  11. Requests the GCF to expedite support for LDCs and other developing country Parties for the formulation of national adaptation plans, consistent with decisions 1/CP.16 and 5/CP.17, and the subsequent implementation of policies, projects and programmes identified by them;

LOSS AND DAMAGE 10

10 The text in this version is replicated from that included in FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6/Rev.1, as deliberations are still underway to produce a revised version.

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  1. Invites all Parties to reduce the risk of, and address, loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
  2. Encourages Parties to strengthen and, where appropriate, develop early warning systems and risk management plans for both extreme events and slow onset events;
  3. Agrees to further develop and elaborate the work of the Warsaw International Mechanism, pursuant to relevant decisions of the COP, including the development of modalities and procedures for the mechanism’s operation and support. This can involve, as appropriate, existing bodies and expert groups under the Convention, as well as relevant organizations and expert bodies outside the Convention, and be informed by relevant precedents in international law;
  4. Requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to develop interim modalities and procedures, for review and adoption by the CMA at its [X] session, for the operation of the climate change displacement coordination facility referred to in Article 5, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, which shall:
    1. (a)  Assist in developing arrangements for emergency relief;
    2. (b)  Assist in providing organized migration and planned relocation;
  5. Also requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to develop guidelines for a comprehensive approach to climate risk management;
  6. Decides to:

(a) Establish a clearing house for risk transfer in order to:

  1. (i)  Provide a repository for information on insurance and risk transfer;
  2. (ii)  Assist Parties in developing and implementing risk management strategies and finding the best insurance schemes;

[(iii) Facilitate financial support for rehabilitation;]
[(b) Establish a financial technical panel to explore approaches for:

  1. (i)  Establishing regional and subregional pools to support regional and subregional risk transfer schemes;
  2. (ii)  Providing support for microfinance initiatives;
  3. (iii)  Exploring finance for slow onset events;]

56. Requests the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism to initiate, at its next meeting, its work related to the operationalization of the provisions contained in paragraph 55 above, and to report on progress thereon to the CMA at its [X] session;

FINANCE

  1. [Decides that, in the implementation of the Agreement, financial resources provided by developed country Parties and other Parties included in Annex II to the Convention to developing countries should enhance the implementation of their policies, strategies, regulations and action plans and their climate change actions with respect to both mitigation and adaptation to contribute to the achievement of the [objective][purpose] of the Agreement, meeting costs of adaptation, addressing loss and damage and including access to and transfer of environmentally-sound technologies and capacity-building, based on the principles and in accordance with the provisions of the Convention;]
  2. Also decides that a significant share of new multilateral funding for climate change actions should flow through the Financial Mechanism and the funds serving the Agreement;
  3. [Further decides that, starting in its first session, the CMA shall set a short-term collective quantified goal for the mobilization of financial resources starting in 2020, which shall be scaled up from a floor of USD 100 billion per year, to address the needs and priorities of developing country Parties to enhance action;]
  4. [Decides that the short-term collective quantified goal for developed country Parties shall be reviewed and assessed every [four][five] based on needs and priorities identified by developing country Parties, in accordance with the modalities and procedures to be developed by the CMA, in the context of achieving the purpose as defined in Article 2 of this Agreement;]
  5. Also decides to establish a process for the consideration of new sources of finance beyond existing bilateral and multilateral sources, in accordance with the terms of reference to be developed by the COP, taking note of the need to abide by the principles of fiscal sovereignty and avoid incidence on developing country Parties;
  6. [Further decides to support developing country Parties, including through the provision of financial resources, to determine and report on their financing needs and country programming priorities for the post-2020 period;]
  7. [Decides to establish a process to review the reports of developing countries in light of efforts to scale up financial support to developing countries in accordance with Article 11, paragraph 3(d), of the Agreement;]
  8. [Also decides that adequate, predictable and sustainable financial resources for the implementation of REDD- plus activities, including for results-based payments, shall be provided by Parties pursuing the coordination of

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support to, inter alia, public and private sources, including the Green Climate Fund in accordance with relevant decisions by the COP;]

  1. [Further decides that Parties should mobilize enhanced results-based payments for verifiable achieved emission reductions and removals related to existing approaches under the Convention;]
  2. Option 1:Decides that the COP at its twenty-second session shall decide on modalities for communicating the information referred to in Article 6, paragraph 10 and decision 3/CP.19 and in this regard shall consider inter alia, the following:
    1. (a)  Information to increase clarity on the expected levels of climate finance mobilized from different sources;
    2. (b)  Information on their policies, programmes and priorities;
    3. (c)  Information on actions and plans to mobilize additional finance
    4. (d)  Information on actions to enhance enabling environments in order to mobilize and attract climate finance from a variety of sources;
    5. (e)  Information on investment plans to implement nationally determined contributions, including financing needs to implement an enhanced level of ambition;
    6. (f)  Information on efforts to integrate climate consideration including resilience into their international and domestic development strategies;
    7. (g)  Information on mobilization of domestic resources;
    8. (h)  Information on efforts to reduce international support for high emission investments
    9. (i)  Information on adequacy of the support provided;
  3. [Also decides to ensure that the provision of financial resources, development and transfer of technology and capacity-building for enhanced climate actions, including for loss and damage, shall be measured, reported and verified through modalities established under the Convention by the relevant subsidiary bodies of the Convention. Such modalities shall ensure that there shall be no double counting of financial resources provided and ensuring the environmental integrity of this agreement;]
  4. [Further decides that measurement, reporting and verification of financial resources, including for meeting costs of adaptation, transfer of technology and capacity-building shall be provided in accordance with Article 4, paragraphs 3, 4 and 5, 8, and 9, in implementation of Article 4, paragraph 7 of the Convention, as well as financing provided through the Warsaw Mechanism for Loss and Damage;]
  5. [Decides that, when accounting for financial resources provided and mobilized through public interventions, developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention shall ensure that:
    1. (a)  Such financial resources accounted for specifically target climate adaptation, mitigation and cross-cutting activities as their main objective in line with the criteria from the IPCC;
    2. (b)  Any uncertainty is to be overcome following the principle of conservativeness, where it is preferable that financial resources are under reported rather than over reported;
    3. (c)  Where multiple actors are involved, the resulting financial resources are only counted once;
    4. (d)  Mobilized private financial resources are only reported where there is a clear causal link with a public intervention and the activity would not have moved forward, or moved forward at scale, in the absence of the public intervention;
    5. (e)  Mobilized multilateral financial resources are adjusted so that only the share attributed to developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention is accounted for;] {Placement proposal: to be moved to Article 9}
  6. [Also decides that the GCF and the GEF shall serve the Agreement as the Operating Entities of the Financial Mechanism. The LDCF and the SCCF, administered by the GEF, and the AF shall also serve the Agreement, and the CMA has the authority to modify this list;]
  7. [Further decides that the guidance to the entities entrusted with the operations of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention in relevant decisions of the COP, including those agreed before adoption of this Agreement, shall apply mutatis mutandis;]
  8. Decides that the Standing Committee on Finance shall serve the Agreement in line with its functions and responsibilities established under the COP;
  9. [Urges Parties to reduce international support for high-emission investments;]
  10. [Parties recognise that the appropriate pricing of greenhouse gas emissions in its many forms, is an important instrument for the reorientation of investment and finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low emission and climate resilient economies and societies;] {Need to rephrase to ensure that this is captured in work programme in the mitigation section}

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  1. Urges the institutions serving this agreement to enhance the delivery of resources to support country-driven strategies through streamlined and efficient application and approval procedures, and through continued readiness support, as appropriate, for accessing finance, including through direct access;
  2. Option 1: Resolves to enhance the provision of urgent and adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties in order to enhance the level of ambition of pre-2020 action by Parties, and in this regard strongly urges developed country Parties to scale up their level of financial support, with a concrete roadmap to achieve the goal of jointly providing USD 100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation, and significantly increasing adaptation finance from current levels and to further provide appropriate transfer of technology and capacity-building;Option 2: Reiterates its resolve as set out in decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4(e), and in decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 18, to accelerate the full implementation of the decisions constituting the agreed outcome pursuant to decision 1/CP.13, in particular in relation to the provision of means of implementation including technology, finance and capacity-building to developing country Parties, recognizing that such implementation will enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period;

TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND TRANSFER

  1. [Decides to strengthen the technology needs assessment (TNA) process, taking into account existing efforts, including under the Poznan strategic programme on technology transfer, by enhancing:
    1. (a)  The implementation of the results of the TNA process through, inter alia, technology action plans and project proposals;
    2. (b)  [The alignment of TNAs more closely with bankable finance projects and] improving TNAs to result in implementable projects;
    3. (c)  The synergy between the TNA process and other arrangements related to the implementation of mitigation and adaption actions, as appropriate;
    4. (d)  The operationalization of decision 18/CP.20 in the TNA process towards achieving gender-responsive climate policy in all relevant activities under the Convention;]*

    * This paragraph will be finalized in the light of any relevant decision of COP 21 on strengthening the TNA process.

  2. [Requests the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) to elaborate the means of strengthening the TNA process referred to in paragraph 77 above, taking into account ongoing work relating to this matter, for consideration and adoption by the COP at its twenty-third session;]
  3. Decides to strengthen the Technology Mechanism and requests the TEC and the Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN) to support the implementation of the Agreement[, including by strengthening their work relating to, inter alia, technology research, development and demonstration];
  4. Option 1: [Encourages] [Parties][Developed country Parties][ Parties included in Annex X to the Agreement] [to][shall][should] take steps to [improve enabling environments] [and address barriers] for technology development and transfer by:
    1. (a)  Establishing and strengthening policy frameworks, institutions and the capacity to build country ownership and innovation, integrating a gender perspective and involving and strengthening the potential of citizens and communities;
    2. (b)  [Leveraging and attracting private-sector investments and promoting access to [public-sector technology][technology in the public domain];]
    3. (c)  Strengthening the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies;

    Option 2: [Developed country Parties][Parties included in Annex X to the Agreement] [shall][should][other] undertake steps to address barriers to accessing technology [and know-how] and to:

    1. (a)  Establish and strengthen their necessary policy frameworks in order to facilitate the removal of barriers and enable and accelerate technology development and transfer to [developing country Parties][Parties not included in Annex X to the Agreement];
    2. (b)  [Leverage enhanced support from the private sector for technology development and transfer to [developing country Parties][Parties not included in Annex X to the Agreement]] [Promote access to public-sector technology and promote technology development and transfer to developing country Parties];
    3. (c)  Provide financial and human resources and institutional and technical support for technology development and transfer to[, and for the development and enhancement of endogenous capacities and technologies of] [developing country Parties][Parties not included in Annex X to the Agreement];
  5. Option 1: Requests the [APA] to develop recommendations regarding the technology framework referred to in Article 7, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the [CMA] at its first session, taking into account the need to avoid duplication and the opportunity to create synergies; the [APA] should consider,

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inter alia, the relationship between that framework and the framework for meaningful and effective actions [to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention,] as well as the functions of the former and its linkage to the Technology Mechanism;

Option 2: [Decides that the SBI review the Technology Framework [Technology Mechanism under the framework] with a view to strengthening it, taking into consideration that the framework shall, inter alia] [Requests the [APA][SBI][SBSTA][others] to elaborate on the technology framework established under Article 7, paragraph 3, of the Agreement, taking into consideration that it shall, inter alia]:

  1. (a)  Facilitate the undertaking and updating of TNAs in developing country Parties;
  2. (b)  Facilitate various options for enabling developing countries’ access to technologies;
  3. (c)  Facilitate the [undertaking of technology assessments][conducting of regular assessments [on][of] technologies that are ready for transfer];
  4. (d)  Make the list of ready-to-transfer technologies;
  5. (e)  Set the target for supporting the development and transfer of each technology to developing countries[and urging Parties to communicate to the secretariat in their INDC on the provision of the technology in a manner that facilitates clarity and understanding of the provision of support] [and anchoring dedicated nodal research, development and demonstration facility on technology development and transfer];
  6. (f)  [Mobilize resources to deliver the support] [[Facilitate] enhance financing and technical support for the implementation of the outcomes of the TNAs of developing countries];
  7. (g)  Address barriers to and create appropriate enabling environments for technology development and transfer;

Option 3: Requests the SBs to elaborate upon the technology framework referred to in Article 7, paragraph 3, of the Agreement;

  1. Decides that the TEC and the CTCN shall report to the CMA, through the subsidiary bodies, on their activities to support the implementation of the Agreement;
  2. Also decides to undertake a periodic assessment of the effectiveness of and the adequacy of the support provided to the Technology Mechanism in supporting the implementation of the Agreement on matters relating to technology development and transfer;
  3. Requests the SBI to elaborate the scope and modalities of the periodic assessment referred to in paragraph 83 above, taking into account the review procedures of the CTCN as stipulated in annex VII to decision 2/CP.17 and the modalities for the stocktaking referred to in Article 10, paragraph 1, of the Agreement, for consideration and adoption by the COP at its [xx] session;

CAPACITY-BUILDING

  1. Decides to establish the Paris Committee on Capacity-Building (PCCB) with the aim of addressing gaps and needs, both current and emerging, in implementing capacity-building in developing country Parties [and other Parties in need of support, including countries with economies in transition,] and further enhancing capacity- building efforts, including coherence and coordination in capacity-building activities under the Convention. The PCCB will manage and oversee the work plan mentioned in paragraph 86 below;
  2. Also decides to launch a work plan from 2016 to 2020 with the following activities:
    1. (a)  Assessing how to increase synergies of cooperation and avoid duplication between existing bodies established under the Convention that implement capacity-building activities, including collaborating with institutions under and outside the Convention;
    2. (b)  Identifying capacity gaps and needs and recommending ways to fill these gaps;
    3. (c)  Promoting the development and dissemination of tools and methodologies for the implementation of capacity-building;
    4. (d)  Fostering global, regional, national and subnational cooperation;
    5. (e)  Identifying and collecting good practices, challenges, experiences, and lessons learned in work on capacity-building by bodies established under the Convention;
    6. (f)  Exploring how developing countries can take ownership of building and maintaining capacity over time and space;
    7. (g)  Identifying opportunities to strengthen capacity at the national, regional, and subnational level;
    8. (h)  Fostering dialogue, coordination, collaboration and coherence among relevant processes and initiatives under the Convention, including through exchanging information on capacity-building activities and strategies of bodies established under the Convention;
    9. (i)  Providing guidance to the secretariat on the maintenance and further development of the web-based Capacity-Building Portal;

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  1. Further decides that the PCCB will annually focus on an area or theme for enhanced technical exchange on capacity-building, with the purpose of maintaining up-to-date knowledge on the successes and challenges of building capacity effectively in a particular area;
  2. Requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to organize annual in-session meetings of the PCCB;
  3. Also requests the Subsidiary Body for Implementation to develop the terms of reference for the PCCB in the context of the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the capacity-building framework with a view to recommending a draft decision on this matter for consideration and adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its twenty-second session;
  4. Invites Parties to submit their views on the membership of the PCCB by 9 March 2016 for inclusion in a miscellaneous document;
  5. Decides that the inputs to the PCCB will include, inter alia, submissions, the outcome of the third comprehensive review of the implementation of the Capacity-Building Framework, the secretariat’s annual synthesis report on the implementation of the framework for capacity-building in developing countries, the secretariat’s compilation and synthesis report on capacity-building work of bodies established under the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol, reports of the Durban forum and the capacity-building portal;
  6. Requests the PCCB to submit annual technical progress reports on its work to the SBI for its consideration at the sessions of the SBI that are held in conjunction with sessions of the COP;
  7. Also requests the COP at its [XX] session to review the progress, the need for extension, the effectiveness and enhancement of the PCCB and take any action it considers appropriate, with a view to recommending a decision to the CMA at its first session on enhancing institutional arrangements for capacity-building consistent with Article 8, paragraph 5, of the Agreement;
  8. Calls upon all Parties to ensure that education, training and public awareness, as reflected in Article 6 of the Convention and in Article 8bis of the Agreement are adequately considered in their contribution to capacity building;
  9. Requests the CMA to explore ways of enhancing the implementation of training, public awareness, public participation and public access to information so as to enhance actions under this Agreement, at its first session;

TRANSPARENCY OF ACTION AND SUPPORT

  1. Decides to establish the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency in order to build institutional and technical capacity, both pre- and post-2020. This initiative will support developing country Parties, upon request, in meeting enhanced transparency requirements as defined in Article 9of the Agreement in a timely manner;
  2. Also decides that this initiative will aim:
    1. (a)  To strengthen national institutions for transparency-related activities in line with national priorities;
    2. (b)  To provide relevant tools, training and assistance for meeting the provisions stipulated in Article 9 of theAgreement;
    3. (c)  To assist in the improvement of transparency over time;
  3. Requests the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism to support the establishment and operation of the Initiative. In particular, urges and requests the Global Environment Facility to make arrangements to support the establishment and operation of this Initiative as a priority reporting-related need, including through voluntary contributions to support developing countries in GEF-6 and future replenishment cycles, to complement existing support under the GEF;
  4. Decides that the progress of work in the design, development and implementation of the Capacity-building Initiative for Transparency referred to in paragraph 100 above, be reported to the future sessions of the Conference of Parties, starting in 2016;

100. Requests the [APA][SBSTA] to develop recommendations for modalities, procedures and guidelines in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 8, of the Agreement, and to define the year of their first and subsequent review and update, as appropriate, at regular intervals, for consideration and adoption at the first session of the CMA/by the twenty-fourth session of the COP, taking into account, inter alia:

  1. (a)  The importance of facilitating improved reporting and transparency over time;
  2. (b)  The need to promote transparency, accuracy, completeness, consistency, and comparability;
  1. (b)  The need to avoid undue burden and duplication;
  2. (c)  The need to ensure that there is no backsliding;
  3. (d)  The need to ensure that there is no double counting;
  4. (e)  The need to ensure environmental integrity;

101. Also requests the [APA][SBSTA], when developing modalities, procedures and guidelines in accordance with paragraph 100 above, to consider, inter alia:

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  1. (a)  The types of flexibility to developing countries set out in Article 9, paragraph 2, of the Agreement including scope, frequency of reporting, and level of detail;
  2. (b)  The methodological consistency between the communication of nationally determined mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} and their implementation;

[(c) Explanations of key categories of emissions and removals excluded from nationally determined mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2} and efforts to include them over time;

  1. [(d)  That Parties, once a source, sink or activity is accounted for in a nationally determined mitigation {insert the relevant phrase from outcome of Article 3.2}, continue to include it or provide an explanation of why it has been excluded;
  2. [(e)  That Parties should work towards the use of common metrics and methodologies adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and removals;
  3. [(f)  That Parties report on progress made in the implementation of their national adaptation plans to the secretariat every two years and collectively exchange information and share lessons learned in the implementation of adaptation, including at the SBSTA, and by promoting, coordinating and strengthening adaptation knowledge platforms, centres and networks;
  1. (g)  Support provided, enhancing delivery of support for both adaptation and mitigation through, inter alia, the common tabular formats for reporting support, and taking into account the SBSTA agenda item on methodologies for reporting on finance, domestic measurement and international verification, and enhancing the reporting by developing countries on support received, including the use, impact and estimated results thereof;
  2. (h)  A system of accounting designed to avoid double or multiple counting of support across countries and donors;
  3. (i)  Information to enable the tracking of progress against the aggregate goal for finance, set out in Article 6, paragraph 10, of the Agreement, the global stocktake set out in Article 10 of the Agreement, and the broader transformation of financial flows;
  4. (j)  Drawing on the biennial assessments and other reports by the SCF and other relevant bodies under the Convention;
  5. (k)  Enhanced reporting on the negative social and economic impact of response measures;

{This section requires adjustments to align with outcomes from other relevant Articles}

  1. Decides to continue and to further strengthen the mandate of multilateral assessment for the provision of financial resources, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building to developing countries Parties during the international assessment and review process for those Parties, in order to ensure that commitments and the provision of such support by developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention are implemented, verified through a robust verification system and meet the needs expressed and identified by developing country Parties, recalling the mandate contained in decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 26, on revising the modalities and procedures for international assessment and review no later than 2016;
  2. Also decides that developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II to the Convention shall report on the provision of financial resources, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building to developing countries, in line with the common methodologies adopted by the COP as mandated by decision 2/CP.17, paragraph 19;
  3. Requests that the progress of work under the work programme referred to in paragraph 9 above be reported to future sessions of the Conference of the Parties and that this work be concluded no later than 2018;
  4. Decides that Parties’ first biennial communications shall be submitted in 2022;
  5. Also decides that the review of reporting shall commence three months after the submission of the biennial

communications;

107. Further decides that the measurement, reporting and verification system established by decisions 1/CP.16 and 2/CP.17 shall be superseded by the framework for transparency of action and support, immediately following the submission of the final biennial reports and biennial update reports;

GLOBAL STOCKTAKE

108. Option 1: Decides that a comprehensive assessment resulting from the global stocktake referred to in Article 10 of the Agreement shall take into account, inter alia:

(a) An updated aggregate synthesis report on the overalleffect of the nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties;

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  1. (b)  [The overall effect of the nationally determined contributions communicated by Parties for subsequent commitment periods;]
  2. (c)  The state of adaptation efforts, experiences and priorities, including information from national adaptation plans;
  3. (d)  The mobilization and provision of means of implementation and support;
  4. (e)  The latest reports of the IPCC;
  5. (f)  [The overall effect of NDC as informed by the aggregated output of the collective monitoring, reporting and verification process under Article 9 of the Agreement, including from national communications and biennial assessment of the SCF];
  6. (g)  Relevant inputs from [the 2013–2015 review and] the technical examination process as referred to in decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 19 of opportunities to enhance practical action;
  7. (h)  Reports of the subsidiary bodies;
  8. (i)  [Input from relevant international organizations, non-state actors and international cooperative initiatives];

Option 2: Requests the [body] to identify the sources of input for the global stocktake referred to in Article 10 of the Agreement and to report to the COP, with a view to the COP making a recommendation to the CMA for consideration and adoption at its first session;

  1. Requests the SBSTA to provide advice on how the assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change can inform the stocktaking of the implementation of the Agreement pursuant to its Article 10 and to report to the [body] on this matter at its first session;
  2. Also requests the [body] to develop modalities for the global stocktake referred to in Article 10 of the Agreement and to report to the CMA, for consideration and adoption at its first session;

FACILITATING IMPLEMENTATION AND COMPLIANCE

  1. Decides that the committee referred to in Article 11, paragraph 2, of the Agreement shall consist of [X] members with recognized competence in relevant scientific, technical, socio-economic or legal fields, to be elected by the CMA on the basis of equitable geographical representation, with [X] members each from the five regional groups of the United Nations and one member each from the small island developing States and the least developed countries, while taking into account the goal of gender balance;
  2. Requests the APA to develop the modalities and procedures for the effective operation of the committee referred to in Article 11, paragraph 2, of the Agreement, with a view to the APA completing its work on this matter for consideration and adoption by the CMA at its first session;

IV. [WORKSTREAM 2]

[ [A. Preamble]
The Conference of the Parties,

Pp1 Pp2 Pp3

Pp4

Pp5

Pp6 Pp7

Pp8

Recalling Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the Convention,

Also recalling decisions 1/CP.16, 1/CP.17, 2/CP.18, 1/CP.19 and 1/CP.20,

Emphasizing with serious concern the urgent need to address the significant gap between the aggregate effect of Parties’ mitigation pledges global annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 [and aggregate emission pathways] consistent with having a likely chance of keeping the increase in global average temperature below 2 °C [or 1.5 °C] above pre-industrial levels,

Stressing the urgency of accelerating the implementation of the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol in order to enhance pre-2020 ambition,

Recognizing the urgent need to enhance the provision of finance, technology and capacity-building support by developed country Parties, in a predictable manner, to enable enhanced pre-2020 action by developing country Parties,

Emphasizing that enhanced pre‐2020 ambition can lay a solid foundation for enhanced post‐2020 ambition,
Also emphasizing the enduring benefits of ambitious and early action, including major reductions in the cost of

future mitigation and adaptation efforts,

Agreeing to uphold and promote regional and international cooperation in order to mobilize stronger and more ambitious climate action by all Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and other subnational authorities, local communities and indigenous peoples,

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Pp9

Acknowledging the need to promote access to electricity in countries in Africa through the enhanced deployment of renewable energy,

[B. Mitigation]

  1. Resolves to ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts in the pre-2020 period, including by:
    1. (a)  Urging all Parties to the Kyoto Protocol that have not already done so to ratify and implement the Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol;
    2. (b)  Urging all Parties that have not already done so to make and implement a mitigation pledge under the Cancun Agreements;
    3. (c)  Reiterating its resolve, as set out in decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, to accelerate the full implementation of the decisions constituting the agreed outcome pursuant to decision 1/CP.13 and enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period in order to ensure the highest possible mitigation efforts by all Parties under the Convention;
    4. (d)  Inviting developing country Parties that have not submitted their first biennial update reports to do so as soon as possible;
    5. (e)  Urging all Parties to participate in the existing measurement, reporting and verification processes under the Cancun Agreements, in a timely manner, with a view to demonstrating progress made in the implementation of their mitigation pledges;
  2. Encourages Parties to promote the voluntary cancellation by Party and non-Party stakeholders, without double counting, of units, including certified emission reductions issued under the Kyoto Protocol that are valid for the second commitment period;
  3. [Urges host and purchasing Parties to report transparently on internationally transferred mitigation outcomes, including those outcomes used to meet international pledges, and emission units issued under the Kyoto Protocol with a view to promoting environmental integrity and avoiding double counting;]
  4. Recognizes the social, economic and environmental value of voluntary mitigation actions and their co-benefits for adaptation, health and sustainable development;
  5. Resolves to strengthen, in the period 2016–2020, the existing technical examination process on mitigation as defined in decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 5(a) and decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 19, taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, including by:
    1. (a)  Encouraging Parties, Convention bodies, and international organizations to engage in this process, including, as appropriate in cooperation with relevant non-Party stakeholders to share their experiences and suggestions, including from regional events, and to cooperate in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and actions identified during this process in accordance with national sustainable development priorities;
    2. (b)  Striving to improve, in consultation with Parties, access to, and participation in this process of developing country Party and non-Party experts;
    3. (c)  Requesting the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Centre and Network in accordance with their respective mandates:
      1. (i)  To engage in the technical expert meetings and enhance their efforts to facilitate and support Parties in scaling up the implementation of policies, practices and actions identified during this process;
      2. (ii)  To provide regular updates during the technical expert meetings on the progress made in facilitating the implementation of policies, practices and actions previously identified during this process;
      3. (iii)  To include information on their activities under this paragraph in their joint annual report to the Conference of the Parties;
    4. (d)  Encouraging Parties to make effective use of the Climate Technology Centre and Network to obtain assistance to develop economically, environmentally and socially viable project proposals in the high mitigation potential areas identified in this process;
  6. Encourages the operating entities of the Financial Mechanism of the Convention to engage in the technical expert meetings and to inform participants on their contribution in facilitating progress in the implementation of policies, practices and actions identified during the technical examination process;
  7. Requests the secretariat to organize the process referred to in paragraph 117 above and disseminate its results, including by:

(a) Organizing, in consultation with the Technology Executive Committee and relevant expert organizations, regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific policies, practices and actions representing best practice and with the potential to be scalable and replicable;

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  1. (b)  Updating, on an annual basis, following the meetings referred to in paragraph 119(a) above and in time to serve as input to the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph 119(c) below, a technical paper on the mitigation benefits and co-benefits of policies, practices and actions to enhance mitigation ambition, as well as on options to support the implementation of these, information on which should be made available in a user-friendly online format;
  2. (c)  Preparing, in consultation with the champions referred to in paragraph 130 below, a summary for policymakers, with information on specific policies, practices and actions representing best practice and with the potential to be scalable and replicable, and on options to support the implementation of these, as well as on relevant collaborative initiatives, and publishing the summary at least two months in advance of each session of the Conference of the Parties as input for the high-level event referred to in paragraph 129 below;
  1. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 117 above should be organized jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice and take place on an ongoing basis until 2020;
  2. Also decides to conduct, in 2017, an assessment of the process referred to in paragraph 117 above, so as to improve its effectiveness;

[C. Support]

122. Option 1: [Resolves to enhance the provision of urgent and adequate finance, technology and capacity-building by developed country Parties in order to enhance the level of ambition of pre-2020 action by Parties, and in this regard strongly urges developed country Parties to scale up their level of financial support, with a concrete roadmap to achieve the goal of jointly providing USD 100 billion annually by 2020 for mitigation and adaptation, and significantly increasing adaptation finance from current levels and to further provide appropriate transfer of technology and capacity-building;

Option 2: Reiterates its resolve as set out in decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 2, 3 and 4(e), and in decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 18, to accelerate the full implementation of the decisions constituting the agreed outcome pursuant to decision 1/CP.13, in particular in relation to the provision of means of implementation including technology, finance and capacity-building to developing country Parties, recognizing that such implementation will enhance ambition in the pre-2020 period;]

[D. Accelerated implementation] [Option 1: (paragraph 123-123ter)

123. Decides to launch an accelerated implementation process starting in 2016 and continuing until 2020, to give effect to decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, inter alia, by:

  1. (a)  Assessing the progress of the implementation of decision 1/CP.19, paragraph 4;
  2. (b)  [Reviewing and] assessing the adequacy of financial, technological and capacity-building support to enable increased mitigation and adaptation ambition by developing country Parties in accordance with decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3, 4(e) and 4(f);
  3. (c)  Developing and implementing measures to identify and address the adaptation and means of implementation gaps in the pre-2020 period;
  4. (d)  Developing ways and means to address the implementation gaps identified in the paragraph 123(c) above in accordance with the principles and provisions of the Convention;
  5. (e)  Sharing experiences, assessing the adequacy and addressing economic diversification as well as the adverse social and economic impacts of response measures on developing country Parties;

123bis. Requeststhesecretariattoorganizetheprocessreferredtoinparagraph123aboveanddisseminateitsresults; 123ter. Decides that the process referred to in paragraph 123 above should be conducted under the Subsidiary Body

for Implementation and take place annually until 2020;

Option 2: (paragraph 123)

123. Decides to conduct a facilitative dialogue in conjunction with the twenty-third session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2017) with a view to identifying ways to enhance the ambition of mitigation efforts by all Parties, including identifying relevant opportunities to enhance the provision and mobilization of support and enabling environments;

Option 3: (paragraph 123)

123. Decides to conduct biennial facilitative dialogues starting in 2016, through 2020, to assess the progress in implementing decision 1/CP.19, paragraphs 3 and 4, including identifying relevant opportunities to enhance the provision of financial resources, including for technology development and transfer and capacity building;]

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[E. Non-Party stakeholder engagement]

  1. Acknowledges with appreciation the results of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda, which build on the climate summitconvened on 23 September 2014 by the United Nations Secretary-General;
  2. Welcomes the efforts of non-Party stakeholders to scale up their climate actions, including those registered in the Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action (NAZCA) platform;
  3. Invites non-Party stakeholders to demonstrate their climate actions through mechanisms such as the NAZCA platform;
  4. Encourages Parties to work closely with non-Party stakeholders to catalyse efforts to strengthen mitigation and adaptation action;
  5. Also encourages non-Party stakeholders to increase their engagement in the processes referred to in paragraphs 117 above and 133 below;

[F. High-level dialogue/events]

  1. Agrees to convene, in furtherance of decision 1/CP.20, paragraph 21, building on the Lima-Paris Action Agendaand in conjunction with each session of the Conference of the Parties from 2016 to 2020, a high-level event that:
    1. (a)  Further strengthens high-level engagement on the implementation of policy options and actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraphs 117 above and 133 below, building on the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph 119(c) above;
    2. (b)  Provides an opportunity for announcing new or strengthened voluntary efforts, initiatives and coalitions, including implementation of policies, practices and actions arising from the processes referred to in paragraphs 117 above and 133 below presented in the summary for policymakers referred to in paragraph 119(c) above;
    3. (c)  Takes stock of related progress and recognizes new or strengthened voluntary efforts, initiatives and coalitions;
    4. (d)  Facilitates the exchange of experiences and sharing of best practices on climate action by non-Party stakeholders, including by providing a platform to strengthen indigenous peoples’ knowledge, practices and technologies on mitigation and adaptation in a holistic and integrated manner;
    5. (e)  Provides meaningful and regular opportunities for the effective engagement of high-level dignitaries from Parties, international organizations, international cooperative initiatives and non-Party stakeholders;
  2. Decides that two high-level champions shall be appointed, to act on behalf of the COP President, to facilitate strengthened high-level engagement referred to in paragraphs 129 above and 133 below, in the 2016–2020 period, including by:
    1. (a)  Working with the Executive Secretary and the current and incoming presidents of the Conference of the Parties to coordinate the annual high-level event referred to in paragraph 129 above;
    2. (b)  Engaging with interested Parties and non-Party stakeholders, including to further the voluntary initiatives of the Lima-Paris Action Agenda;
    3. (c)  Providing guidance to the secretariat on the organization of technical expert meetings referred to in paragraphs 119(a) above and 137(a) below;
  3. Also decides that the high-level champions referred to in paragraph 130 above should serve for a term of two years, with their terms overlapping for a full year to ensure continuity, such that:
    1. (a)  The President of the twenty-first session of the Conference of the Parties should appoint one champion, who should serve from the date of the appointment until the last day of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2016);
    2. (b)  The President of the twenty-second session of the Conference of the Parties should appoint one champion, who should serve from the date of the appointment until the last day of the twenty-third session of the Conference of the Parties (November 2017);
    3. (c)  Thereafter, each subsequent President should appoint one champion who should serve for two years and succeed the previously appointed champion whose two-year term has ended;
  4. Invites all interested Parties and relevant organizations to provide support for the work of the champions referred to in paragraph 130 above;

[G. Adaptation]

133. Decides to launch a technical examination process on adaptation in the period 2016-2020 that will endeavour to identify opportunities for strengthening resilience, reducing vulnerabilities and increasing the understanding and implementation of adaptation actions;

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  1. Also decides that the process referred to above should be organised jointly by the Subsidiary Body for Implementation and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, and conducted by the Adaptation Committee;
  2. Further decides that this technical examination process will be pursued through:
    1. (a)  Facilitatingthesharingofgoodpractice,experiencesandlessonslearned;
    2. (b)  Identifying actions that could significantly enhance the implementation of adaptation action including thoseactions which could enhance economic diversification and have mitigation co-benefits;
    3. (c)  Promotingcooperativeactiononadaptation;
    4. (d)  Identifying opportunities to strengthen enabling environments and enhance the provision of support foradaptation;
  1. Decides that technical examination process on adaptation action will take into account the process, modalities, outputs and outcomes, as well as the lessons learned from the technical examination process on mitigation referred to in paragraph 117 above;
  2. Requests the secretariat to support the technical examination process on adaptation by:
    1. (a)  Organising regular technical expert meetings focusing on specific policies, strategies and actions;
    2. (b)  Preparing annually, based on the meetings above and in time to serve as an input to the Summary forPolicy Makers referred to in paragraph 119(c) above, a technical paper on opportunities to enhance adaptation action, as well as on options to support the implementation of these, information on which should be made available in a user-friendly online format;
  3. Decides that in conducting the process outlined above, the Adaptation Committee will engage with and explore ways to take into account, synergise with and build on the existing arrangements for adaptation-related work programmes, bodies and institutions under the Convention, to ensure coherence and maximum value;
  4. Also decides to conduct, in conjunction with the assessment referred to in paragraph 121 above, an assessment of the process referred to in paragraph 133 above, so as to improve its effectiveness;
  5. Invites Parties and observer organisations to provide submissions on the initial themes of technical expert meetings on adaptation by 6 February 2016;

V. NON-PARTY STAKEHOLDERS

  1. Welcomes the efforts of all actors to address and respond to climate change, including those of civil society, the private sector, financial institutions, cities and other subnational authorities;
  2. Invites the actors referred to in paragraph 141 above to scale up their efforts and support actions to reduce emissions and/or to build resilience and decrease vulnerability to the adverse effects of climate change;
  3. Also invites the actors referred to in paragraph 141 above to demonstrate their continued efforts to address climate change via the Non-State Actor Zone for Climate Action;11
  4. Recognizes the knowledge, technologies, practices and efforts made by local communities and indigenous peoples to address and respond to climate change;
  5. Also recognizes the important role of carbon-pricing in providing incentives for emission reduction activities;

VI. ADMINISTRATIVE AND BUDGETARY MATTERS

  1. Takes note of the estimated budgetary implications of the activities to be undertaken by the secretariat referred to in this decision and requests that the actions of the secretariat called for in this decision be undertaken subject to the availability of financial resources;
  2. Emphasizes the urgency of making additional resources available for the implementation of the relevant actions, including the actions referred to in this decision, and the implementation of the work programme referred to in paragraph 9 above;
  3. Urges Parties to make voluntary contributions for the timely implementation of this decision.]

11 Available at < http://climateaction.unfccc.int/ >

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