This is how climate science went mainstream

climates.jpeg

(Jonathan Kemper, Unsplash)

This article is brought to you thanks to the collaboration of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum.

Author: Katharine Rooney, Senior Writer, Formative Content


Environmentalism has become mainstream. Recycling is now a $200 billion global industry. Sustainability has become a significant focus for global corporations. And governments have been introducing major programmes to cut carbon emissions.

It wasn’t always this way. In the 1960s, worrying about our impact on the Earth was perceived as a niche pursuit. So how did we get to where we are today? Here’s a timeline of some key developments.

1962 – Silent Spring

The book that is widely seen as having launched the modern environmental movement was written by an American ecologist, Rachel Carson. Silent Spring took aim at the use of pesticides and the damage they were causing to biodiversity. Carson called for environmental stewardship and a more considered approach to human intervention in the natural world.

1971 – Greenpeace

Inspired by Rachel Carson, a group of activists from Vancouver, Canada set sail for Amchitka – an island off the coast of Alaska that was home to bald eagles, peregrine falcons, and 3,000 endangered sea otters – in an old fishing boat called The Greenpeace to try to stop an American nuclear weapons test. The activists feared the underground explosion would trigger earthquakes and tsunamis.

The ship was forced to turn back, but the mission captured the public imagination. Greenpeace is now an international organization with offices in 40 countries and its own research laboratories. It is still involved in direct action, but also lobbies governments for policy changes and conducts investigations into “environmental crimes”.

Greenpeace uses its ships to engage in both direct action and research.
Greenpeace uses its ships to engage in both direct action and research.
Image: Wikimedia Commons/Salvatore Barbera

1989 – Margaret Thatcher

Known as “The Iron Lady” for the certainty she had about her political views, the former UK Prime Minister also raised awareness about climate change in a series of domestic and international speeches.

In November 1989, she told the UN General Assembly: “The environmental challenge that confronts the whole world demands an equivalent response from the whole world. Every country will be affected and no one can opt out.”

Image: Statista

Since Thatcher’s heyday, a significant number of people around the world have come to believe that human activity is responsible for climate change – including 71% in India and 69% in Spain.

1992 – Adoption of the ‘Rio Conventions’

The Rio Earth Summit in 1992 saw three conventions adopted, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the first global treaty on the climate.

The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994, with 197 countries having ratified it to date. It not only recognised the problem, but also sought to stablise emissions, direct financial support to where it was needed and keep tabs on the extent of the issue – all without impacting economic progress.

The two other conventions adopted in Rio were the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention to Combat Diversification.

1997 – The Kyoto Protocol

Five years after Rio, the international community went one step further with the Kyoto Protocol, which set out binding emissions targets for developed countries. It committed 37 industrialized nations and the European Community to cut their emissions of six greenhouse gases by an average of 5% by 2012, compared with 1990 levels.

The agreement came into effect in 2005. By 2015, the countries that had taken on targets under the treaty had reduced their emissions by roughly 20%.

What’s the World Economic Forum doing about climate change?

Climate change poses an urgent threat demanding decisive action. Communities around the world are already experiencing increased climate impacts, from droughts to floods to rising seas. The World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report continues to rank these environmental threats at the top of the list.

To limit global temperature rise to well below 2°C and as close as possible to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, it is essential that businesses, policy-makers, and civil society advance comprehensive near- and long-term climate actions in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change.

The World Economic Forum’s Climate Initiative supports the scaling and acceleration of global climate action through public and private-sector collaboration. The Initiative works across several workstreams to develop and implement inclusive and ambitious solutions.

This includes the Alliance of CEO Climate Leaders, a global network of business leaders from various industries developing cost-effective solutions to transitioning to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. CEOs use their position and influence with policy-makers and corporate partners to accelerate the transition and realize the economic benefits of delivering a safer climate.

2015 – The Paris Agreement

The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the decision-making body of the UNFCCC. It has held a climate change conference in a different location each year since it was established in 1995.

At COP21 in Paris in 2015, parties to the UNFCCC agreed to accelerate their climate action, with the aim of keeping the global temperature rise in the 21st century well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, and ideally limiting any increase to 1.5°C.

The Paris Agreement has now been ratified by 187 signatories. The United States was one of the first nations to sign, but the country has since announced it will withdraw from the agreement.

2018, 2019 – Greta Thunberg

In the summer of 2018, Swedish schoolgirl Greta Thunberg first began “climate striking” – sitting outside her country’s parliament every school day for three weeks to protest about the lack of policy action on climate change.

In the last week of September 2019, 6 million people around the world joined protests calling for climate action.

the sting Milestone

Featured Stings

Can we feed everyone without unleashing disaster? Read on

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

New poll shows what people think coronavirus will do to their economies

EU Parliament says ‘no’ to austerity budget

Will Qualcomm avoid Broadcom’s hostile takeover post the 1 bn euro EU antitrust fine?

Pakistan-India crossing is a ‘Corridor of Hope’, UN chief says, wraps up visit with call for interfaith dialogue

Informal meeting of heads of state or government, Sibiu, 09/05/2019

These islands are using tourists to help offset the effects of tourism

Is Haiti better prepared for disasters, nine years on from the 2010 earthquake?

Brexit talks stalled at launch; issues with European Court’s authority in Britain

New chapters in EU-China trade disputes

Health equity and accessibility for migrants is a peremptory demand

As fighting in Libya escalates, so does number of children ‘at imminent risk of injury or death’

How has policy affected employment in small businesses in the US?

This city in India swaps plastic for free meals

A backbencher Tory MP threatens both EU and UK with a no-deal Brexit

Federalist EU ‘naively’ believes Washington shares her TTIP high fever

Plastic waste from Western countries is poisoning Indonesia

How to keep our cities cool as temperatures rise

Migration crisis update: The “Habsburg Empire” comes back to life while EU loses control

Autonomous weapons that kill must be banned, insists UN chief

Entrepreneurial leadership: what does it take to become a leader?

Financing fossil fuels risks a repeat of the 2008 crash. Here’s why

A quarter of Pacific islanders live below ‘basic needs poverty lines’, top UN development forum hears

Government internet ban leaves parts of Myanmar ‘in a blackout’, UN expert calls for immediate lifting

How can impact investors balance the green energy equation?

Why Trump’s tariffs are good news for US garlic farmers

Do not take the EP’s consent on MFF for granted, says Budget Committee Chair

Ebola cases rising in DR Congo, but UN health agency cites progress in community trust-building

External action: more funds for human rights, development and climate change

Your chocolate can help save the planet. Here’s how

rescEU assets mobilised to help Greece fight devastating forest fires

3 reasons why responsibly-deployed technology is key to the COVID recovery

Guinea-Bissau: Upcoming elections vital to prevent ‘relapse’ into instability, says UN envoy

Assembly of European Regions @ European Business Summit 2014: Made in Europe – Made of Regions

Urgently address ‘defining challenges of our time’, to empower youth worldwide, top UN official tells forum

Brazilian health: right or privilege?

Hardened creditors drive Greece to dire straits; Tsipras desperate for an agreement

State aid: Commission approves German scheme for very high capacity broadband networks in Bavaria

ECB offers cheaper money despite reactions from Germany

Pumping more money into banks but leaving them unregulated doesn’t help

These researchers want to use your computer in the search for a COVID-19 vaccine

5 myths about face masks under the microscope

Mine action is at ‘the nexus’ of peace, security and development: UN official

Greece may offer to China a European gateway

5 ways the world is rallying around Australia as bushfires rage

Lithuania finds the ways to maintain its energy security

The hidden risks nature loss poses for businesses

How do we design an inclusive energy transition?

What if nature became a legal person?

DR Congo: Restore internet services as ‘a matter of urgency’, urges UN expert

Commission: Raising the social issues that can make or break the monetary union

UN experts urge Turkey to repatriate Irish woman associated with terror group

World’s 1.8 billion youth must ‘have a say in the future of the planet’

November infringements package: key decisions

Genocide threat for Myanmar’s Rohingya greater than ever, investigators warn Human Rights Council

Peacekeeping: A ‘great opportunity’ to develop professionally and personally

Code of Practice on Disinformation one year on: online platforms submit self-assessment reports

How can we prepare students for the Fourth Industrial Revolution? 5 lessons from innovative schools around the world

G20 LIVE: G20 Antalya Summit in Numbers, 15-16 November 2015

The cuts on 2014 Budget will divide deeply the EU

‘All atrocity crimes are preventable’ and can never be justified – UN chief

More Stings?

Advertising

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s