‘Ground Zero’: Report from the former Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan

UN News/Nargiz Shekinskaya A view of Semipalatinsk Test Site’s ground zero in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan. Remote Semipalatinsk was once the Soviet Union’s primary testing venue for nuclear weapons.

This article is brought to you in association with the United Nations.


Every year on August 29, at the initiative of Kazakhstan, the UN and its Member States mark the International Day against Nuclear Tests. This year, the Day coincides with the 70th anniversary of the first atomic bomb test at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan. UN News travelled to the remote, eerily beautiful region, for this report.

Moscow-400Semipalatinsk-21End of the LineKurchatov City. All these are the names for a top-secret city built on the banks of the Irtysh River in the north-east of Kazakhstan after the Second World War. Living there were Soviet scientists and members of the military whose job it was to conduct nuclear tests.

To get inside Kurchatov City, which in the late 1940’s was surrounded by checkpoints, friends and family members of the city’s inhabitants would wait for months for permission. Getting outside the city, named after Soviet nuclear physicist Igor Kurchatov, wasn’t so easy either.

Yet, the town was stocked with the best food supplies. High-quality merchandise was delivered there, and all the best conditions were created for the work and leisure pursuits of 50,000 people that lived here.

Over 40 years, 456 nuclear devices were exploded on the territory, which stretches some 18.5 thousand square meters, and the first “mushroom cloud” rose over the test site near Semipalatinsk exactly 70 years ago, on August 29, 1949.

Inside the ‘testing ground,’ residents can recall ‘beautiful’ mushroom clouds

It takes about two hours to get from Semey, which what Semipalatinsk has been called since 2007, to Kurchatov City, and it takes another hour by a cross-country road to get from there to ‘ground zero’.  In the Soviet era, a concrete road was constructed here for delivery of heavy loads, but it fell into disrepair and was never rebuilt.

Today, the “testing ground” is an immense, flat steppe overgrown with dry grass. Grim, triangular structures that were once topped with sensors, dot the territory, as a reminder of its past.

Yet, 70 years ago, everything here looked different: to study the effects of the nuclear explosions, the Soviet military built streets, erected bridges and even excavated a subway in the area. Animals used for testing were brought into the “impact zone.”

The locals readily share their memories: some describe the “horrible mushroom” in a shaky voice, while the others say that it was “even beautiful”. Before each test, the military would go to the nearby villages and ask the inhabitants to go outside during the blast.

“My grandfather remembers how they exploded a hydrogen bomb in 1955, how he felt the blast wave and saw the light flash,” Amir Kayranov, told UN News. He is a young employee of the National Nuclear Center that was opened in Kurchatov City after the tests ceased.

Lasting health impacts

At the time, not many people realized the dangers nuclear blasts posed. Even though Kazakh scientists have been conducting territory decontamination for almost 30 years, radiation levels here are still elevated, and children in the area continue to be born with genetic mutations – a local medical university has even amassed a horrific collection of infants with abnormalities.

Nevertheless, no one says these problems are directly connected to the test site. Science likes precision, and the scientists don’t have numbers at their disposal. And that’s not just about the mutations.

“In the Semipalatinsk of Soviet era, one would hear about suicides all the time; people would take their own lives – by hanging themselves or jumping from a bridge, said Nurzhan Esenjolov, an employee of the Semey City Hall.

“There is no evidence that would prove a direct connection between those incidents and the nearby nuclear tests, but people in the villages got used to suicides that occurred quite often at the time,” he explained.

Tolkyn Bulegenov, Vice-President of the Semey Medical University, would only confirm an increase in contemporary oncology indices.

“In the zones adjacent to the test site, one can encounter malignant growths of the thyroid and blood malignancies – hematological blastoma, leukosis, lymphoma and chronic leukemia – 10 to 15 per cent more often than in other regions of Kazakhstan,” the medical professional told UN News.

According to Mr. Bulegenov, it is precisely these diseases that are connected to the prolonged exposure to radiation, and all the cases nowadays are meticulously tracked.

However, the information about health of the people who were exposed to direct radiation in the very years of tests at Semipalatinsk Test Site is under lock and key.

Mr. Bulegenov says that in the 1960s, a medical dispatch was organized but “the results of the study remain classified up until today.” The official estimate is that, over 40 years, there were approximately one million people in the zone of radiation impact.

Closing Semipalatinsk, ‘re-cultivating’ land

When the test site was closed, Kazakhstan was faced with the question of how to decontaminate the land and what to do with the military-industrial complex that remained on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site.

In order to solve this and other problems, the National Nuclear Center was founded in Kurchatov City. Employees of the Center conduct research and carried out ‘re-cultivation’, which requires the land to be plowed in such a way that the contaminated topsoil ends up on the bottom, and the uncontaminated soil rises to the surface.

Combatting the nuclear proliferation is the number one priority for Kazakhstan, which felt first-hand the impact of nuclear tests and voluntarily gave up its nuclear capacity. This country was one of the first CIS republics to join the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.

Kazakhstan also came forward with a proposal to create the International Day against Nuclear Tests be observed in order to promote the dissemination of information about consequences of such tests. August 29 is not only the date of the first test at Semipalatinsk; on this date in 1991 President Nursultan Nazarbayev signed the decree about closing the test site, also known as the Polygon.

the sting Milestones

Featured Stings

Can we feed everyone without unleashing disaster? Read on

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

LGBTQ+: The social evolution of a minority

Our healthcare systems are ailing. Here’s how to make them better

EU and China to do more in common if the global scene gets worse

White Coat, Stained red

Less than half of EU travellers are aware of EU Passenger Rights

How Japan and Singapore are reinventing old age

3 things the G20 can do to save the World Trade Organization

EU-Belarus: MEPs back agreements on readmission and visa facilitation

How is the global economy fairing 11 years after the financial crisis?

Cities are especially vulnerable to COVID-19. These organizations are leading the urban response.

Eurozone: In vicious cycle of disinflation and unemployment?

ECB embarks on the risky trip to Eurozone banking universe

We underestimate the power of data at our peril. This is why

Measles ‘misinformation campaigns’ through social media, fuel rising toll

Parliament: Last compromise on bank single resolution mechanism

Health services for Syrian women caught up in war, foster safety and hope: UNFPA

Record-breaking heatwaves killed about 1,500 people in France

Five ways to increase trust in e-commerce

China is now heavily endorsing its big investment flow in the Central Eastern European (CEE) countries

Turkey: Extension of EU humanitarian programmes supporting 1.7 million refugees receives green light

How Eurozone consumers spend their income when they have one…

The real cost of addiction

DR Congo: With Ebola on the wane, UN agencies prepare to combat coronavirus

A Sting Exclusive: Paris Climate Change Summit, a defining moment for humanity, by Ulf Björnholm Head of UNEP Brussels

Investment and Financing under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI): EU and Chinese stakeholders share their views at European Business Summit 2018

Record numbers of people in the UK have applied to study nursing

These are the regions where people have most faith in their schools

The impact of COVID-19 on the life of the elderly

Iraq: UN demining agency rejects desecration accusations, involving historic Mosul churches

Wolfgang Schäuble: “Without European unification, there would be no German unity”

“Be aware where you put your I Agree signature on and something else”; now Facebook by default opts you in an unseen private data bazar

EU allocates €50 million to fight Ebola and malnutrition in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Taxes on polluting fuels are too low to encourage a shift to low-carbon alternatives

Banks launch green charter to help shipping reduce its carbon footprint

Peacekeeping chief highlights challenges facing UN Police

Why exchange programs are essential for the medical students of the 21st century

The moment of truth for global energy transition is here

Energy: EU priority projects should be aligned with 2050 climate objectives

UN rights chief ‘extremely concerned’ over deadly crackdown on protesters in Iran

Colombia: New Congress marks rebel group’s transition ‘from weapons to politics’, says UN

Thousands of health professionals call on world leaders to prioritize a greener future, post-pandemic

European Citizens’ Initiative: Commission decides to register ‘Right to Cure’ initiative

Our present and future tax payments usurped by banks

It’s time for financial services to embrace the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Here’s why

Future Africa-Caribbean-Pacific States/EU Partnership: “Post-Cotonou” negotiations resume at ministerial level

Menu for change: why we have to go towards a Common Food Policy

The new ethical dilemmas in medicine of the 21st century

What talent means in the post-COVID-19 workplace

European Parliament calls on Russia to end occupation of Georgian territories

What is blockchain and what can it do?

World Economic Forum CEO Climate Leaders call for continued action toward net-zero emissions

EU Parliament shows its teeth in view of 2014 elections

Lorenzo Natali Media Prize 2019: winners of EU’s development journalism award unveiled

Here’s how to achieve growth in the Middle East and North Africa

Murder of Brazilian indigenous leader a ‘worrying symptom’ of land invasion

How technology is leading us to new climate change solutions

Fighting Depression In the Isolation of COVID-19

An expert explains: the digital risks facing our children during COVID-19

Silk Road Unlimited

The UK option: An overarching alternative for the whole Brexit options

More Stings?

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s