Human trafficking cases hit a 13-year record high, new UN report shows

© UNICEF/UNI91025/Noorani Two girls apply make-up at Kandapara, a brothel in the city of Tangail, Bangladesh. A man offered them to find them jobs, but instead sold them to Kandapara. (2009)

This article is brought to you in association with the United Nations.


The latest Global Report On Trafficking In Persons, released on Tuesday by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) at UN headquarters in New York, shows a record-high number of cases detected during 2016, but also the largest recorded conviction rate of traffickers.

“The report was undertaken for a simple reason: if we want to succeed in confronting human trafficking in all its manifestations, we must better understand its scope and structure,” said Yury Fedotov, UNODC’s Executive Director as he presented the report in New York. “We need to appreciate where human trafficking is happening, who are its victims and who is perpetrating this crime.”

According to the latest figures compiled by UNODC, the record conviction and detection rates could either be a sign that countries have strengthened their capacity to identify victims – such as through specific legislation, better coordination among law enforcement entities, and improved victim protection services – or, that the number of actual instances of trafficking has increased.

While in 2003 fewer than 20,000 cases had been recorded, the number of cases recorded in 2016 had jumped to over 25,000.

Despite improvements in data collection, impunity prevails

Over the last decade, the capacity of national authorities to track and assess patterns and flows of human trafficking has improved in many parts of the world. UNODC’s report notes that this is also due to a specific focus of the international community in developing standards for data collection. In 2009, only 26 countries had an institution which systematically collected and disseminated data on trafficking cases, while by 2018, the number had risen to 65.

However, many countries in Africa and Asia continue to have low conviction rates, and at the same time detect fewer victims which, UNODC stresses, “does not necessarily mean that traffickers are not active”.

In fact, the report shows that victims trafficked from areas of the world with low detection/conviction rates are found in large numbers in other areas of the world, suggesting that a high degree of impunity prevails in these low-reporting regions.

“This impunity could serve as an incentive to carry out more trafficking,” the report warns.

Women and girls remain a major target

“Traffickers the world over continue to target women and girls,” wrote Executive Director Fedotov, in the report’s preface. ‘The vast majority of detected victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation and 35 per cent of those trafficked for forced labour are female.”

The report notes “considerable regional differences in the sex and age profiles of detected trafficking victims.” In West Africa, most of the detected victims are children, both boys and girls, while in South Asia, victims are equally reported to be men, women and children. In Central Asia, a larger share of adult men is detected compared to other regions, while in Central America and the Caribbean, more girls are recorded.

Sexual exploitation, the top form of trafficking

Most of the victims detected globally are trafficked for sexual exploitation, especially in the Americas, Europe, and East Asia and the Pacific. In sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, trafficking for forced labour is the most commonly detected form. In Central Asia and South Asia, trafficking for forced labour and sexual exploitation are equally prevalent,

Other forms of human trafficking include: girls forced into marriage, more commonly detected in South-East Asia; children for illegal adoption, more common in Central and South American countries; forced criminality, mainly reported in Western and Southern Europe; and organ removal, primarily detected in North Africa, and Central and Eastern Europe.

“Victims can be in restaurants, fisheries, brothels, farms, homes, and even organ trafficking and illegal adoption,” said Rani Hong, who survived child trafficking herself as she was taken from her family in India at age 7, submitted to intimidation, physical abuse and slavery, until she was sold for illegal adoption in Canada and later the United States.

“I was told by my witnesses that when I came into the United States, I was not able to walk because I had been locked in a small cage. This is what this industry is doing, and this is what happened to me.”

Many other forms, such as trafficking for exploitation in begging, or for the production of pornographic material, are reported in different parts of the world.

Armed conflict and displacement, a key driver of human trafficking

The report shows that armed conflicts can increase vulnerability to trafficking in different ways as areas with weak rule of law and lack of resources to respond to crime, provide traffickers with a fertile terrain to carry out their operations, preying on those who are desparately in need.

Armed groups and other criminals may take the opportunity to traffic victims – including children – for sexual exploitation, sexual slavery, forced marriage, armed combat and various forms of forced labour. This is the case for example in sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and the Middle East, South-East Asia and elsewhere.

In some refugee camps in the Middle East, also, it has been documented that girls and young women have been ‘married off’ without their consent and subjected to sexual exploitation in neighbouring countries.

In addition, recruitment of children for use as armed combatants is widely documented. UNODC’s report notes that within conflict zones, armed groups can use trafficking as a strategy to assert territorial dominance, spread fear among civilians in the territories where they operate to keep the local population under control. They may also use women and girls as ‘sex slaves’ or force them into marriages to appeal to new potential male recruits.

The study shows that in all the conflicts examined for the report, forcibly displaced populations (refugees and internally displaced families) have been specifically targeted: from settlements of Syrian and Iraqi refugees, to Afghans and Rohingya fleeing conflict and persecution.

Notably, the risk faced by migrants and refugees travelling through conflict areas, such as Libya or parts of sub-Saharan Africa, is also well documented: in Libya, for example, militias control some detention centres for migrants and refugees and are coercing detained migrants and asylum seekers for different exploitative purposes.

“While we are far from ending impunity, we have made headway in the 15 years since the Protocol against Trafficking in Persons entered into force,” said UNODC’s chief Mr. Fedotov, as he noted that “nearly every country now has legislation in place criminalizing human trafficking”.

“The international community needs to accelerate progress to build capacities and cooperation, to stop human trafficking in conflict situations and in all our societies where this terrible crime continues to operate in the shadows,” he stated in the report’s preface.

the sting Milestone

Featured Stings

Can we feed everyone without unleashing disaster? Read on

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

Coronavirus Global Response: Commission joins the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access Facility (COVAX)

How much more political is the new EU leadership? Does this include personal bend?

Preserving biodiversity vital to reverse tide of climate change, UN stresses on International Day

Mobile technology in medicine: a step to upgrade and the small steps forward

State aid: Commission approves €200 million Danish loan in support of the Travel Guarantee Fund for travel cancellations due to coronavirus outbreak

The EU Parliament endorses tax on financial transactions

Why trade wars have no winners

Concorde is a reminder that the only way for innovation is up

Croatian Presidency outlines priorities to EP committees

Hospitals in Yemen attacked, disrupting healthcare for thousands of vulnerable civilians

EU to host international donors’ conference for Albania to help with reconstruction after earthquake

The increasing drug prices in Europe

2030 development agenda: Major breakthrough for world of work

Wednesday’s Daily Brief: #NoTobacco Day, China’s economy, family farming, #ClimateAction

The pill of gender bias – hard to swallow

UN urges protection of indigenous peoples’ rights during migration

Cultural Intelligence: the importance of changing perspectives

EU Commission: Germany can make Eurozone grow again just by helping itself

Africa must become more resilient to climate risk. Here’s how

EU consumers will soon be able to defend their rights collectively

Millions of people eat octopus- here’s why we shouldn’t

Brexit: Citizens’ rights remain a key priority for MEPs

New UN initiative to support financial systems that ‘work better for everyone, everywhere’

Iraq: Solutions needed ‘urgently’ to quell ongoing violence, break political deadlock

Main results of EU-Japan summit: Tokyo, 17/07/2018

US prosecutors now target Volkswagen’s top management, upsetting Germany

Microplastic and nanoplastic pollution threatens our enviroment. How should we respond?

Privatization of the health sector and the right to receive treatment

ECB: Euro area should smooth out the consumption and income shocks of its members

Commission caps charges on card and Internet payments and enforces competition

Gaza: deadly violence continues to escalate, top UN officials work to restore calm

The benefits of exercise in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic

How traditional Islamic giving can play a role in the future of aid

Towards the new era of medicine

European Commission presents comprehensive approach for the modernisation of the World Trade Organisation

UN agency assists Central American caravan migrants, voices concern for receiving countries

The impact of refugees on the European healthcare system

Is decentralization a panacea for development?

SMEs are driving job growth, but need higher investment in skills, innovation and tech to boost wages and productivity

GSMA Announces Speakers for Mobile 360 – Russia & CIS 2018

One year on: EU-Canada trade agreement delivers positive results

In this Tokyo cafe, the waiters are robots operated remotely by people with disabilities

‘Reasons to hope’ for sustainable peace in Central African Republic – UN Mission chief

Resiliency is the key to strong investments in a chaotic world

Brexit casts a shadow over the LSE – Deutsche Börse merger: a tracer of how or if brexit is to be implemented

EU-China Leaders’ Meeting: Upholding EU values and interests at the highest level

The financial crisis always prefers the south of Eurozone

Iran: women hunger strikers entitled to medical care, UN rights experts urge

These are the fastest trains in the world

Handwashing is saving lives – but for too many people, it remains a luxury

A Sting Exclusive: “Leading by example! EU must push for UN deal to avoid dangerous climate change”, European Parliament Vice-President Ulrike Lunacek cries out from Brussels

Guterres says UN stands ready to support Brazil’s search and rescue effort in wake of tragic dam collapse

Draghi will not hesitate to zero ECB’s basic interest rate

How mobile money is rebuilding lives in Sudan

EU Directive makes haircut on uncovered deposits a standard in bank bail-ins

Coronavirus: the truth against all myths

Voice tech and the question of trust

My unlimited China

3 charts to help you understand the American shale boom

Climate adaptation could make the world more peaceful

More Stings?

Advertising

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s