The economic cost of anti-vaccination movements in Italy

conte 2019

Mr Giuseppe CONTE, Italian Prime Minister. Copyright: European Union Event: European Council – June 2018 (Day 1)

This article was exclusively written for the The European Sting by Mr. Francesco Rosiello, a doctor of medicine and surgery, graduated at “Sapienza-University of Rome”. He is affiliated to the International Federation of Medical Students Associations (IFMSA), cordial partner of The Sting. The opinions expressed in this piece belong strictly to the writer and do not necessarily reflect IFMSA’s view on the topic, nor The European Sting’s one.


In recent years, but also thanks to some political parties that defend no-vax theories, vaccination coverage is decreasing, increasing the costs of health care spending and the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics. On the other hand, even health professionals who declare themselves in favor of vaccines or who advise their patients to get vaccinated are not properly vaccinated. Some studies begin to show that vaccines, reducing the spread of pathogens (also by means of the so-called flock effect), reduce, in addition to mortality, morbidity and cost of health care, also the antibiotic-resistance, which it is increasingly a big problem in industrialized countries.

Methods: analysis of available literature and other valid government sources. The research was carried out by inserting on Pubmed: “vaccines”, “antimicrobial resistence”, “vaccines AND antimicrobial resistence”, “cost vaccination”, “cost antimicrobial resistence”. Later we added “AND Italy” to the previous queries.

Results: mistrust in the vaccines is spread in a variable way within and outside the borders of the European Union[1]: 41% in France, 21% in Italy, 13% in the USA and 10% in Germany; last, the UK with only 9%, compared to a world average of 12%.

In Italy the radiation procedures were opened against doctors (0.03%) who supported “free-vaccinist” theories; radiation from the register does not become immediately enforceable, because, in the absence of convictions by the ordinary judiciary, the National Federation of Medical Orders foresees that it will become enforceable only after the second degree of disciplinary judgment; so, before an actual radiation, at least 2 years pass from the first sentence.

In July 2017 a law makes the registration of children in nursery schools and preschools subject to the presentation of the vaccination certificate or its self-declaration. The coercive character, after eighteen years of recommendation-based vaccination policy, has given rise to many social and political debates.

Regarding costs, the proportion of infections on total acute hospitalizations under ordinary conditions is constantly increasing and in 2014 reached 36.5 per thousand. The infections lengthen the average stay of 3 days (DS: 0.4-10) and giving the value of 700 euros, on average, to the additional days of hospitalization attributable to infections, we understand how the annual expenditure varies between 369 and 492 millions of euros.

As for the total direct and indirect costs of influenza, which for Italy are estimated at 2.86 billion euros, vaccinating the whole adult population would fall to 1.56 billion (-€1.3 billion). All this leads to an increase in healthcare spending (in 2015 the National Health System spent € 317.9 million on vaccine purchases, or only 1.4% of total pharmaceutical expenditures), both in terms of resources diagnosis, treatment and treatment, both in terms of working days lost due to illness and post-infectious period.

Correct information (both in content and in communication strategies) towards citizens (with particular reference to women, who as mothers, in most cases, will take care of the vaccination of their children) is essential on the part of the institutions and doctors, who have the advantage of being able to meet their clients in person and provide personalized advice. Likewise, it is important to increase training for not only medical students, but for all health professions.

Bibliography

Signorelli C, Odone A, Cella P, Iannazzo S, D’Ancona F, Guerra R. Infant immunization coverage in Italy (2000-2016). Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2017 Jul-Sep;53(3):231-237.

Signorelli C, Odone A. Advocacy communication, vaccines and the role of scientific societies. Ann Ig. 2015 Sep-Oct;27(5):737-47.

Garattini L, Curto A, Freemantle N. Vaccination planning in Italy: increasing vaccines while reducing coverage? Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2016 Oct;16(5):547-548.

Ciorba V, Odone A, Veronesi L, Pasquarella C, Signorelli C. Antibiotic resistance as a major public health concern: epidemiology and economic impact. Ann Ig. 2015 May-Jun;27(3):562-79.

Clift C, Salisbury DM. Enhancing the role of vaccines in combatting antimicrobial resistance. Vaccine. 2017 Dec 4;35(48 Pt B):6591-6593

Lipsitch M, Siber GR. How Can Vaccines Contribute to Solving the Antimicrobial Resistance Problem? MBio. 2016 Jun 7;7(3).

Mishra RP, Oviedo-Orta E, Prachi P, Rappuoli R, Bagnoli F. Vaccines and antibiotic resistance. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012 Oct;15(5):596-602.

Ginsburg AS1, Klugman KP2. Vaccination to reduce antimicrobial resistance. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Dec;5(12):e1176-e1177.

Smith KJ, Nowalk MP, Lin CJ, Zimmerman RK, Cost effectiveness of a practice-based intervention to improve vaccination rates in adults less than 65-years-old. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Oct 3;13(10):2207-2212.

Herdman M, Cole A, Hoyle CK, Coles V Carroll S3, Devlin N, Sources and Characteristics of Utility Weights for Economic Evaluation of Pediatric Vaccines: A Systematic Review. Value Health. 2016 Mar-Apr;19(2):255-66.

Castiglia P, Pradelli L Castagna S3, Freguglia V, Palù G, Esposito S, Overall effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: An economic analysis of PHiD-CV and PCV-13 in the immunization of infants in Italy. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Oct 3;13(10):2307-2315.

[1] Vaccine Confidence Project in 2016

About the authors

Francesco Rosiello is a doctor of medicine and surgery, graduated at “Sapienza-University of Rome” on October 25, 2018 with a thesis in general and applied hygiene. He deals with CBRN emergencies, disaster medicine, healthy cities, medical intelligence, health simulations and Health Technology Assessment, International Humanitarian Law and Disasters one. During his studies, he has won 5 scholarships on disaster medicine and clinical trials and 5 university collaboration grants. He has presented work in all the International Workshops on CBRNe from 2013 to today, at the 1st international congress on CBRNe and in numerous conferences, some of which for medical students. He is a member of numerous Italian and international scientific societies.

Advertising

the sting Milestone

Featured Stings

Can we feed everyone without unleashing disaster? Read on

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

Why the world is not as globalized as you think

Climate action ‘both a priority and a driver of the decade’: Guterres

UN condemns attack that leaves one ‘blue helmet’ dead in Central African Republic

Disaster Medicine in Medical Education: the investment you just can´t afford to ignore

UN chief seeking ‘renewed commitment’ to global rules and values, as world leaders head to New York

Security Council: UN welcomes efforts to de-escalate crisis in northeast Syria

Gender Equality Index 2019: Still far from the finish line

How Finland is fighting fake news – in the classroom

The AI doctor won’t see you now

UN urges protection of indigenous peoples’ rights during migration

ITU Telecom World 2017: exploring smart digital transformation

A world first: Women at the helm of every UN Regional Commission

Reforms in Lithuania are reinforcing economic growth but boosting productivity is still a challenge

‘Catastrophic’ healthcare costs put mothers and newborns at risk

How much time has the ‘European Union of last chance’ left?

US-North Korea summit in Singapore ‘a promising development’ says Guterres

Journey of my life

Human rights breaches in Nigeria and Burundi

“Asia-Pacific takes stock of ambitious development targets”, written by the Heads of UNFPA and ESCAP

A jingoistic Spanish ‘war’ from the past

Tax revenues have reached a plateau

Scotland in United Kingdom: It’s either the end or the beginning of the end

LIFE Programme: Member States to benefit from quarter of a billion euros of investments in environment, nature and climate action

Anti-vaxxers are hurting vaccination campaigns. We need to fight back

Getting vaccinated should just be considered a human right?

A European Discovers China: 3 First Impressions

The EU threatens to impose extra import duties on Chinese products

3 things to know about our Sustainable Development Impact Summit

The 28 EU leaders unable to start a relevant debate on migration and Brexit

Eurozone: Retail sales and inflation point to recession

European tourism remains a strong growth factor

Rising landmine blast toll in Afghanistan highlights long-term care needs of survivors

We are on the edge of a new ‘cyber’ space age. This is how we make it a success

EU adopts rebalancing measures in reaction to US steel and aluminium tariffs

We can’t rid Asia of natural disasters. But we can prepare for them

How populist and xenophobic movements in the EU tear apart European businesses and startups

The Fourth Industrial Revolution needs a social revolution, too. Here’s how we can make this happen

If this is Globalization 4.0, what were the other three?

South Eurozone needs some…inflation and liquidity

MEPs want to ensure sufficient funding for Connecting Europe’s future

Entrepreneurship and strategic planning: the enabler

4 ways to cyberproof your business during mergers & acquisitions

‘Critical moment’ for sustainable development, UN chief tells major financing forum

Companies ‘failing’ to address offline harm incited by online hate: UN expert

COP21 Breaking News: Conference of Youth Focuses on Hard Skills to Drive Greater Climate Action

Parliament makes it easier to organise a European Citizens’ Initiative

How health privatization increases health inequities

Gas pipeline in the European Union. (Copyright: EU, 2012 / Source: EC - Audiovisual Service / Photo: Ferenc Isza)

EU Investment Bank approves € 1.5bn loan for Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP)

Bioethics: how to recover trust in the doctor-patient relationship

The European Sting @ European Business Summit 2014 – the preview

UN mosquito sterilization technology set for global testing, in battle against malaria, dengue

Towards the Rise of the United States of the Atlantic?

5 reasons to be more cheerful about the future of the oceans

China’s Ambassador to the EU Zhang Ming wishes to Brussels a Happy 2019 Year of the Pig

Batteries can power sustainable development. Here’s how

Step up action to protect the planet during wartime: UN environment chief

China is adding a London-sized electric bus fleet every five weeks

UN human rights chief denounces grave ‘assaults’ on fundamental rights of Palestinian people

We’re facing a ‘cold crunch,’ and it’s nothing to do with the polar vortex

This is how much the US-China trade war could cost the world, according to new research

More Stings?

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s