What the Amazon rain forest tells us about globalization

Amazon FAO

Amazon rainforest to recover 30,000 hectares by 2023 (FAO, 2017)

This article is brought to you thanks to the strategic cooperation of The European Sting with the World Economic Forum.

Author: Peter Vanham, Media Lead, US and Industries, World Economic Forum


Can globalization and the fight against climate change co-exist? Or is the environment doomed to suffer as people fly, goods are shipped, and agriculture and industry tap international markets?

One place to look in order to answer these questions, is the Amazon rainforest: it’s the world’s largest storage space for carbon and a crucial node in our planet’s ecosystem.

If globalization there can happen without harming the environment, it probably can elsewhere too. But if it can’t, we may be headed for a collision, leading to climate disaster, de-globalization, or both.

At 670 million hectares, the Amazon rainforest is still easily the world’s largest rainforest – larger than Western Europe or India. You can wander in it for years, without ever seeing its edge (as some discoverers sadly found out). But in the last few decades, the rainforest shrank by about 20% due to deforestation.

 In the Brazilian Amazon, an area the size of France has been lost to deforestation.

In the Brazilian Amazon, an area the size of France had been lost to deforestation by 2016
Image: Philip Fearnside, Yale Environment 360, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. 2016

Many tried to stop the process of cutting the millennia-old forest. Some do it to protect indigenous groups from forcibly having to adjust to a more Western lifestyle. Others, like the World Wildlife Fund, stress the need to protect the forest’s unique biodiversity, with about a tenth of the world’s plants and species, including many yet undiscovered.

But combatting climate change has become an obvious third reason to root for the rainforest. By some estimates, more than a 100 billion tonnes of carbon are stored in it. To put that into perspective: that’s about 10 times the annual global carbon emissions from fossil fuels. If the trees that hold this carbon were cut, nothing else we do about climate change may matter.

Deforestation is a global issue

The reason why people cut the forest, however, has largely remained the same: to get more arable land for the farmers that live in its surroundings. This rings especially true for the inhabitants of Brazil, a country that is responsible for about 75% of its deforestation. (Other relevant “culprits” are Bolivia, Peru and Colombia. The five other countries in the Amazon basin play a lesser role.)

What does globalization have to do with this, though? Agriculture has, since ancient times, been the primary cause of deforestation. Europe’s fields were once primeval forests too. But, in our modern era, the demands for agricultural goods are no longer confined to domestic needs. Demand for Brazilian soy or beef is now, to a large degree, a factor of demand in the US or China. It is a factor of globalization.

So, can globalization and the Amazon rainforest co-exist? A number of analyses, news reports, and academic studies have looked into this question over the years. Their findings are often disheartening, sometimes hopeful, but often inconclusive. In the end, globalization is just one of many factors in the socio-economic and political factors that cause deforestation.

So what do the studies say? We will focus on Brazil, as it accounts for the largest part of the Amazon and its deforestation. First, it seems self-evident why a globalized agricultural market would demand the expansion of arable and pasturable land in Brazil. South America’s largest country is a big exporter of many agricultural commodities. According to the OECD, Brazil will account for almost half of world sugar exports by 2026, and 47% of global soybean volumes, with global demand for each growing rapidly from now until then.

With such vast and growing international demand, it is not hard to see why the Amazon rainforest would get cut. One study of the University of Sao Paulo, looking at historical data until 2007, confirmed that basic correlation. It found that at a municipal level in Brazil, increased openness to trade historically led to more deforestation, though some exceptions were found.

Other studies indicated a starker reality still. One government programme intended for poverty alleviation among farmers, actually reconfigured many Amazonian livelihoods away from diversified agriculture to a strong engagement with the global cattle economy, according to a study from the Universities of Wisconsin and Florida.

Though cattle farming theoretically provided farmers with better incomes, it also put pressure on the forest. More than 80% of cleared areas in the Brazilian Amazon are dedicated to pasture formation, the study noted. In this case, the effect of global economic forces was clearly detrimental. The transnational cattle industry kept farmers in a tight grip, forcing them to expand pasturable land in the Amazonian basin.

A race to the top

But globalization can be a force for good, too, some researchers believe. Just as there can be a race to the bottom from globalization, there can be one to the top, too. Consumers of agricultural products in global markets may be more likely to demand a product that is produced sustainably, putting pressure on producers to do their part.

American and Brazilian researchers saw these “Opportunities for Conservation” as a possible consequence of the globalization of the soy and beef industry as early as 2004. Since then, deforestation rates in the Amazon did decline, WWF wrote, although they continue at an alarming rate, and it is unclear whether global consumer pressures had anything to do with the decline.

Ultimately, it seems, globalization can be both bad and not quite so bad. In its rawest forms, an internationally integrated economy will simply procure more goods from where it can get them. If an invisible hand were to organize this particular market, the Amazon forest and climate as a whole would likely suffer. So far, that is, by and large, what has happened in the Amazonian basin.

Luckily though, several stakeholders in our global economic ecosystem do sometimes provide more positive incentives and pressures. They too can play a role in the outcome of the globalization vs. climate change equation. Sometimes, that positive consumer effect already exists: several large multinationals committed to sustainable procurement of cocoa or palm oil, for example. The Tropical Forest Alliance, an initiative hosted by the World Economic Forum, is working with the Colombian government and businesses to protect the Amazon from commodity-driven deforestation.

Ultimately, it is up to policymakers, law enforcers, and society as a whole to put its priorities, and to ensure the sustainability of the economy and the environment. If they get it right, there is a possibility that globalization and a healthy rainforest can co-exist. If they don’t, the adverse consequences will be carried by all of us.

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising

the European Sting Milestones

Featured Stings

These campaigners want to give a quarter of the UK back to nature

How to build a more resilient and inclusive global system

Stopping antimicrobial resistance would cost just USD 2 per person a year

Food safety critical to development and ending poverty: FAO deputy chief

Free flow of non-personal data: Parliament approves EU’s fifth freedom

Eurostat overturns Commission’s assessment of the economy

1 in 7 people would choose not to fly because of climate change

Here’s how tech is revolutionising transport for low-income communities in urban Africa

3 ways to fix the way we fund humanitarian relief

Debunked: 5 myths about the future of work

EU Parliament semi worried over democratic deficit

Mental health of health professionals: the alter ego

The battle for the 2016 EU Budget to shake the Union; Commission and Parliament vs. Germany

Robots will soon be a necessity but they won’t take all our jobs

The reason the world showed limited empathy to the Orlando victims

Germany resists Macron’s plan for closer and more cohesive Eurozone; Paris and Berlin at odds

Remembering Kofi Annan

Lack of basic water facilities risks millions of lives globally: UN health agency

How privacy tech is redefining the data economy

Recognize, celebrate and ‘stand in solidarity’ with persons with albinism

The hostilities in south and eastern Ukraine resume; where could they lead?

LEAGUE OF YOUNG VOTERS LAUNCHES TOOL FOR YOUNG PEOPLE TO COMPARE POLITICAL PARTIES AHEAD OF EU ELECTIONS

UN appeals for international support as flood waters rise in wake of second Mozambique cyclone

90% of plastic polluting our oceans comes from just 10 rivers

The European Sting writes down the history LIVE from G20 Leaders’ Summit in Turkey

‘No-deal’ Brexit preparedness: European Commission takes stock of preparations and provides practical guidance to ensure coordinated EU approach

Ercom, cutting-edge Telco solutions from Europe

The Fourth Industrial Revolution must not leave farming behind

Mosul’s ‘3D contamination’ adds to challenges of deadly mine clearance work

Ship Recycling is the Commission’s Titanic

UN refugee agency presses States to aid 49 refugees stranded on Mediterranean

COP22 addresses a strong global pledge to effectively implement the Paris Agreement

EU is not only obsessed with Facebook but also blaims now innocent websites using social plugins to serve democratic dialogues?

Africa Forum aims to boost business, reduce costs, help countries trade out of poverty

EU revengefully shows no mercy to Cameron by demanding a fast and sloppy Brexit now

China is a renewable energy champion. But it’s time for a new approach

Alarming number of Ebola deaths in DRC a ‘rallying cry’ to scale up treatment

Parliament to ask for the suspension of EU-US deal on bank data

Europe plans to send satellites into space to monitor CO2 emissions

We are ‘burning up our future’, UN’s Bachelet tells Human Rights Council

Greece did it again

It’s time for global businesses to accept local responsibility

Belgium: Youth Forum takes legal step to ban unpaid internships

CO2 can be a valuable raw material, not just a climate killer. Here’s how

The US calls off globalization, targets Germany. Paris offer to Berlin comes at a cost

‘Once-in-a-generation opportunity’ will be squandered, warns Guterres, unless social, economic, environmental challenges are met

Assembly of European Regions @ European Business Summit 2014: Made in Europe – Made of Regions

Humans aren’t made for repetition – it’s time AI took over manufacturing

Are e-cigarettes as safe as they claim to be?

Boat made of recycled plastic and flip-flops inspires fight for cleaner seas along African coast

Cyclone Idai: emergency getting ‘bigger by the hour’, warns UN food agency

OECD Secretary-General Gurría welcomes announcement of new trade agreement between the US, Mexico and Canada

Rule of law in Hungary: Parliament should ask Council to act, say committee MEPs

Implementation of tax transparency initiative delivering concrete and impressive results

UN civil society conference to focus on sustainable solutions for challenges of urban life

State aid: Commission approves €431 million public support for cleaner transport in German cities

OECD, UN Environment and World Bank call for a radical shift in financing for a low-carbon, climate-resilient future

Why schools should teach the curriculum of the future, not the past

Brussels to tear down the trade wall with Mexico as opposed to Trump’s “walls”

Shanghai has tough new recycling rules – and it will stop collecting trash from communities that don’t comply

8000 young people in the EP in Strasbourg: “a breath of fresh air for EU democracy”

Is Erdogan losing game and match within and without Turkey?

This tiny new grain could save the planet

More Stings?

Speak your Mind Here

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s